<\T URBANA CHAMPAIGN
The person charging this marensible for
its return to the library from which it was withdrawn
i or before the Latest Date stamped below.
, n ' and Undertinin 9 f >* - reason, for discipli-
m " di ' mi8Ml fr(Mn * University.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
MAR 20 "h?
Managers and Missionaries:
Library Services to Children
and Young Adults
in the Information Age
University of Illinois
Graduate School of Library and Information Science
ALLERTON PARK INSTITUTE
Papers Presented at the Allerton Park Institute
University of Illinois
Graduate School of Library and Information Science
The Youth Divisions of the American Library Association:
American Association of School Librarians (AASL)
Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC)
Young Adult Services Division (YASD)
November 14-16, 1986
Chancellor Hotel & Conference Center
1501 S. Neil
1989 by The Board of Trustees of The University of Illinois
ISBN 0-87845-075-0 ISSN 0536-4604
No. 28 6QPY- 3
Cet> ' 3 CONTENTS
CHANGING PRIORITIES FOR SERVICE
TO CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SCHOOL
AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES 5
Marilyn L. Miller
MANAGEMENT OF YOUTH SERVICES:
POLITICAL, FINANCIAL, AND
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS 17
DESIGN OF YOUTH SERVICES 29
COALITION-BUILDING: MAYBE TOMORROW?
MAYBE TODAY! 41
ACCESS TO INFORMATION: PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY AND PERSONAL RESPONSE 55
Frances M. McDonald
PART I: FUNDING FOR YOUTH SERVICES-
HOW TO DO IT AND WHERE TO
FIND IT 65
PART II: FUNDING FOR YOUTH SERVICES-
LIBRARY SERVICES AND CONSTRUCTION ACT 75
Ruth E. Faklis
MARKETING YOUTH LIBRARY SERVICES:
A USER APPROACH 79
THE RIGHT STUFF: RECRUITMENT AND
EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN'S AND YOUNG
ADULT SPECIALISTS 89
CREDENTIALS, COMPETENCIES, AND
Joan L. Atkinson
CONTINUING EDUCATION: PROVIDING
FOR CHANGE, RENEWAL, AND GROWTH 115
HALOS AND PITCHFORKS: QUESTIONS ABOUT
LIBRARIANS SERVING YOUTH 121
Margaret Mary Kimmel
WHAT LIBRARY SCHOOLS OFFER THAT SCHOOL
LIBRARY MEDIA SPECIALISTS AND YOUTH
SERVICES LIBRARIANS NEED 129
Helen Lloyd Snoke
WHAT DO PUBLIC LIBRARIES NEED FROM
MANAGERS AND MISSIONARIES FOR
CHILDREN'S SERVICES? 137
Judith A. Drescher
WHAT DO SCHOOLS NEED? 141
Delores Zachary Pretlow
EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENT OF
YOUTH SERVICES 147
Gerald G. Hodges
DEVELOPING A YOUTH AGENDA FOR THE
INFORMATION AGE 157
Dawn H. Heller
The 1986 Allerton Institute was developed to provide a forum for discus-
sion of theories and means of meeting the information needs of children
and young adults in both school and public library settings. The institute
was cosponsored by the Graduate School of Library and Information
Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the three youth
divisions of the American Library Association (ALA): the American Asso-
ciation of School Librarians (AASL), the Association for Library Service to
Children (ALSC), and the Young Adult Services Division (YASD). The
conference was supported by the World Book ALA Goal Award and
twenty Illinois participants received grants from the Illinois State Library to
enable their attendance at the conference. The conference program was devel-
oped with the particular help of Ann Weeks and Evelyn Shaevel, both of ALA.
Speakers gave an overview of issues in the field of youth librarianship
and presented perspectives on specific issues challenging librarians and
media specialists. Speakers and conference participants worked together to
determine directions and strategies for the profession as we look to a
changing information environment in the years to come.
Four focus areas were the basis of the presentations. The papers that
follow were written and presented by nationally-known leaders and are
meant to provide a summary of activity in the field. The four focus areas
are: (1) management of youth services, (2) recruitment and education for
children's and young adult specialists, (3) evaluation of services to children
and young adults, and (4) the development of a "Youth Agenda" for the
youth divisions of the American Library Association and the profession.
The idea of a national conference grew out of a concern that we have a
paucity of comprehensive and serious treatment of issues in the field of
Managers and Missionaries
youth librarianship. The previous 1977 Allerton Institute addressed the
status of children's services in public library settings. All three youth
divisions of ALA regularly address the issues of importance to each of their
constituencies. There seemed to be few opportunities to address issues
across age and type of library boundaries. This Allerton Institute was
created to give both practitioners and academics a forum to address profes-
sional topics and to delineate areas of concern, problems in the field, and
direction for professional activity as we approach a new century and a new
and changing information environment.
Marilyn Miller, in her keynote presentation, gives an insightful over-
view of the issues likely to be facing us in providing library sen ice to youth
in the twenty-first century. She draws both on her background as a leader
both in AASL and ALSC as well as thoughtful consideration of current
library practice to present an analysis of information services to young
people in the next twenty years.
Regina Minudri, director of the Berkeley Public Library and president
of the American Library Association, draws on her experience as a youth
librarian and manager of a major public library to set out issues in
management of youth services. Julie Cummins presents issues in the
design of services to youth; Christy Tyson addresses issues of image,
cooperation, and coalition building for youth service; and Frances
McDonald explores access to information and youth rights. Susan Rosen-
zweig and Ruth Faklis address needs for funding for services to youth, and
Craighton Hippenhammer presents a model for marketing youth services
The second area of focus is presented by Margaret Bush. She deals with
issues of preparation and career development of professionals who serve
youth. Special issues in library education are presented by: Joan Atkinson,
who discusses standards and performance appraisal of personnel; Jana
Varlejs, who presents issues in the need for and delivery of continuing
education; and by Margaret Kimmel, who provides demographic informa-
tion on the profession. Also presented is an analysis of library education by
Helen Snoke, from the School of Library Science at the University of
Michigan; Judith Drescher, director of Memphis-Shelby County Public
Library; and Delores Pretlow, Media Center coordinator for the Rich-
mond, Virginia Public Schools.
In the important area of evaluation of service to children and young
adults, Gerald Hodges presents various measures of service as well as issues
in the field of measurement. Dawn Heller articulates areas of concern
expressed by conference participants which have been the basis of goal
development for the ALA youth divisions.
The ALA youth divisions responded to the recommendations from
this Allerton Institute by creating the Allerton/ Alliance Joint Youth Di\ i-
sions Task Force. The task force had representatives from each youth
division, and each member had attended the 1986 Allerton Institute. The
task force was charged with the creation of a position paper based on the
Allerton Institute and the Alliance for Excellence Task Force Report. The
report of the Allerton/Alliance Joint Youth Divisions Task Force was
submitted to the Joint Youth Divisions Executive Committee at the ALA
Annual Conference in New Orleans in July 1988. The recommendations of
this task force were for the adoption of the task force report by the youth
divisions of the ALA and ALA Council and that an ALA task force be
appointed to draft an implementation plan for the recommendations of
the task force.
The premise of this Allerton Institute and for the subsequent work of
the Task Force is that the quality of service provided by libraries and media
centers is important to the social, cultural, and intellectual life of the youth
served. Further, it is the responsibility of librarians serving youth to be
advocates for excellent service to young patrons. It is the role of the
American Library Association to provide leadership and education to
youth services librarians so that they are prepared to be effective service
providers in the complex, technological information environment of the
society of the future.
It is through the interweaving of these elements and responsibilities
that progress in youth services will be made. It is hoped that this Allerton
Institute and the published proceedings will be important steps in address-
ing the issues facing the field on a national level. We need to look carefully
at ourselves, our institutions, and youth themselves from the varying
perspectives of supervisors, grassroots service providers, the professional
association, and library educators. This institute was the work of many
people, planners, speakers, and participants and as such represents a
coalition of individuals who can contribute to the growth and change of
library service to youth as we move toward the twenty-first century.
MARILYN L. MILLER
Professor and Chair
Department of Information and Library Studies
University of North Carolina
Greensboro, North Carolina
Changing Priorities for Service
to Children and Adolescents
in School and Public Libraries
This paper is an attempt to present some issues and concerns that will have
to be addressed as continued plans are made for library programs for young
people that will serve them effectively in the coming decade.
This Allerton Institute is a milestone in the history of the development
of library service to American youth. What is now organized as three youth
divisions of the American Library Association (ALA) The American
Association of School Librarians (AASL), The Association for Library
Service to Children (ALSC), and The Young Adult Services Division
(YASD) was at one time a single body representing all youth services.
Youth services librarians worked together originally as an organized,
integrated group. They separated thirty-five years ago to develop unique
areas of specialization by type of library and age level. Now in a different
and fast changing period of time, youth services librarians are being forced
to confront the inescapable fact that they may have to come together again
in some way to provide more effective service to a shrinking youth popula-
tion beset by tremendous social and cultural change and unrelenting rapid
Organizationally, youth services librarians have tried for the past
several years to have more jointly sponsored programs at national confer-
ences. ALA candidates and forums have been sponsored at the ALA Mid-
winter meetings, the three executive committees have met regularly twice a
year to discuss ways of cooperating and positions that might be taken fora
political impact on ALA. Overlapping services and activities are begin-
ning to be thought of as possibilities for cooperation ideas coming from
the Alliance for Excellence and joint publications. And on the home front
in various cities and small towns across the country, there have been
Managers and Missionaries
cooperative efforts at book evaluation and selection, union catalogs,
resource sharing, homework hotlines, school visits, and public library
field trips. All of these things have been and are good, and these must
neither be denigrated nor stopped. However, it is suggested that the time
has come to confront strategies and methods, prejudices, and territorial
imperatives and to look at some changing priorities for delivering library
service to the young. From that effort, youth services librarians could
develop heightened understandings of each other and those served, decide
to pool efforts, to share expertise, and to plan more effectively to improve
both organizational efforts and program delivery in more home communi-
ties than is now done.
Library services are offered within a social context. The society that is
shaping the current crop of children is very different from the society most
of us grew up in. Children now sitting in preschools will graduate in the
year 2001. They will not remember a time without computers and VCRs.
The children we are talking about serving in the next fifteen years will be
confronted by unrelenting and rapid changes in the demographic compo-
sition of society, family structure, schooling, and technology. In addition,
the changing economy, with its developing global nature, especially a
transnational work force competition that is forcing a national move away
from an emphasis on an indigenous skilled blue collar work force and
small family farms, forms a backdrop against which all other social issues
swirl and take shape.
Demographics must be considered in designing future library service
to youth. Census statistics reveal that, in general, we will have an older
population, fewer children, and a different ethnic mix. The traditional
nuclear family has broken up, and many single parent homes managed by
women are homes of poverty. Specifically, the ethnic/linguistic composi-
tion of the population is changing rapidly and drastically. The birthrate
for white women in the United States has dropped from a peak of 2.9
children per woman during the baby boom era to 1.7 in 1984. In compari-
son to 1970, there are some 100,000 fewer white children under the age of
five and 280,000 more black children. The fastest growing minority group
is Mexican-American, whose birthrate of 2.9 children per woman is cur-
rently the highest in the nation. (Asian-American populations are also
growing rapidly but because of immigration and not birthrates.) In 1985,
two-thirds of all immigration in the world was to the United States. The
first institution to receive the children of these immigrants is the school,
the second is the church, and it is hoped that the third is the public library.
Fully 27 percent of all public school students in the United States represent
minorities, and each of the nation's twenty-four largest city school systems
has a "minority majority." By approximately the year 2010, one of every
three Americans will be black, Hispanic, or Asian-American.
Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents
In 1983, for the first time in history, there were more people over 65
than there were teenagers. Of the 24 million Americans over 65, 2.2 million
are over 85 and 30,000 are over 100. One forecaster has predicted that by the
year 2000 there will be over 100,000 people over 100 years of age. In essence
we are talking about a smaller generation of workers containing a larger
percentage of women and minorities that must supply the financial sup-
port for not only a huge number of retired parents and grandparents but for
the public schools and libraries and other public institutions that serve the
young. Every forecaster reminds us that youth will become relatively
scarce. Children will truly become national treasures eagerly recruited by
colleges, the military, and employers. (McDonald's, I was told last spring
on a professional visit to Connecticut, now buses teenagers from the Bronx
into Connecticut suburbs to keep the glow on the golden arches and the
eggs in the McMuffins.) Tomorrow's children will have even more oppor-
tunities (or problems) than their predecessors.
A few years ago, this author saw a fascinating film for the teaching of
visual literacy. One section of the film had pulled together a montage of
television commercials depicting the typical American family as portrayed
by cereal and Jello commercials in the fifties. The typical Jello family
father in business suit, mother in pretty dress with two children (a boy
child and a girl child) all sitting at a formally laid dining room table
having, of course, good conversation about the day's activities as they
consumed a well-balanced meal of salad, meat, vegetable, potato, and
dessert (Jello, of course). That two-child, two-parent family doesn't exist
anymore. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1977) stated unequivocably in a report ten
years ago that: "The family is not currently a social unit we value or
support" (p. 39).
Although the present administration would have us believe otherwise,
the devastating cuts in human aid programs give lie to the word. And the
shunning by adolescents of adult family contact, advice, and company for
the sharing of ignorance and myth of their peers is a concern addressed by
few. The partial results of this contemporary youth society and the break-
down of the family unit and support systems can be seen in the 9,000
teenage suicides, the majority of whom, some say, are gifted and talented,
and the 25,000 deaths by automobile in 1985 alone a total of 34,000
teenagers. This is more teenagers than attend the high schools in the
Durham, Raleigh, Chapel Hill area.
Of today's children, 14 percent are illegitimate, 40 percent will be
living with a single parent by their eighteenth birthday, 30 percent are
latchkey children, and 20 percent live in poverty. One-third of all Ameri-
can children will experience poverty sometime before reaching adulthood.
Fifteen percent of today's children speak another language, 1 5 percent have
physical or mental handicaps (Hodgkinson, 1986), and 10 percent have
Managers and Missionaries
poorly educated parents. Fifty percent of children under six have working
mothers while 60 percent of children ages 6- 17 have working mothers (U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1985, p. 6).
As we all know full well, the educational pendulum swings back and
forth with great regularity in this country. The blessing and the curse of
living in a democracy. The populace, it must be admitted, is fickle when it
comes to dealing with social issues. Attention is short-lived and easily
deflected. That is, of course, why missionaries are needed to keep the faith
and remain steady to the resolve even when the public's attention is
diverted. When the pendulum sweep starts back, the missionaries are ready
to lead the forward motion.
The problems facing education are disquieting. This is really not new
considering the function of schools. But concern today is about the inequi-
ties brought about by a philosophy that views an interstate highway system
as federally fundable but not a fiscal floor for educational budgets to ensure
a national minimum access to educational equity. Experts seem to agree
that in addition to diminishing financial resources, there will be declining
enrollment along with substantial shifts in enrollment at all levels of
education. Some say the dropout problem will disappear in the next fifteen
years because the job market and the military will be so hungry for the
young that those disaffected with formal education will simply disappear
and continue their learning in the informal educational institutions unbo-
thered by the formal educational power structure because they are "off the
There is no doubt that a power struggle for control of the curriculum
exists. Who will determine what texts are to be used? What subject matter is
to be taught? Schools have traditionally taught the values of the culture,
thus they are always a little behind, and when values shift drastically, as
certain elements of society today would have us believe is happening, the
schools truly get caught in the crossfire. The battle lines are being drawn
all over the country on the teaching of religion, sex education, values
education, and global relationships, to name only a few. During this
author's tenure in education, there has been a power shift from the local
community, to the state, to the federal government, back to the local
community, and now seeming to shift again to local competing commun-
ity groups and competing professional organizations. If the school library
media specialist cannot or will not buy materials objected to by commun-
ity groups, will the public library stand strong?
School faculties are graying. It is predicted that two-thirds of the
current crop of school library media specialists will be gone within the
decade. A few years ago the average age of teachers in San Francisco was
Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents
An increasingly litigious society and strident parents and students
will continue to cast shadows on the desirability of remaining in the
teaching profession. However, there is an exciting other side. The demand
for teachers will be accompanied by a call for increasing the rigor as well as
the quality of the curriculum and for teaching students to think i.e., to
select, to compare, to evaluate, to synthesize. The Association for Supervi-
sion and Curriculum Development (ASCD) is but one professional group
calling for the teaching of thinking skills. ASCD is involved in a Collabo-
rative on Teaching Thinking which is working to: ( 1 ) define thinking skills
and processes, (2) encourage publishers to develop instructional materials
and tests that promote student thinking, (3) establish a research agenda,
(4) establish and encourage adoption of standards on teaching for pre-
service and inservice education of both teachers and administrators, and
(5) promote teaching thinking in a national public awareness campaign
(Hughes, 1986, p. 33). Librarians both school and public need to watch
this movement in terms of both selection and programs. Materials and
activities which require students to develop higher order thinking skills
will be essential, and teachers will be turning to us in both schools and
public libraries for those resources.
A few of the global problems that demand a well-educated and
informed citizenry are a shrinking world with a burgeoning population,
shortages of natural resources and a decline in food sources such as fish and
fertile areas for farming, the rising tide of masses of refugees, 17 million
economic and political exiles now live in a land other than their birth and
thereby draw on the resources of wealthier nations.
Last, but not least, of the trends affecting the future is the rapid
development of communications technology i.e., the global village,
microchip technology, publishing on demand, the digital transformation
of the way messages are sent and received, new languages, read only
memory discs, compact discs, handheld computers, voice activated calcula-
tors, books printed on wafers to be used in calculators (which some predict
may make the necessity for learning to read and write unnecessary).
With all of these wonders, one might hasten to add that the citizenry
can also be instantaneously galvanized and trivialized with the same
media. The destruction of tradition, the creation of true masses, the
"dumbing down" of textbooks have all become reality in the mid-1980s.
Everything everybody ever knew can be stored. Data can be collected about
people and their lives and hoarded away to be used in ways few dreamed
could ever be possible. The poorest scholar can tap information at its
creation. So impressed by microchips, information is beginning to be
equated with education and knowledge. One should be reminded that
technology is used to provide information that people can use to become
10 Managers and Missionaries
educated and to gain knowledge so that they may live full, useful, and
The electronic classroom of the future is here. The May-June 1986
issue of The Futurist (Larick, 1986, pp. 21-22) describes the first phase of
the Placentia Unified School District's (Orange Co., California) develop-
ment of electronic classrooms. There is a similiar installation in Michigan
(described in the School Library Journal by the library media director,
Bernice Lamkin ) an installation that is being replicated in a large
number of high school renovations all over the country. These systems
coordinate multiple technologies i.e., satellite-delivered instructional
programming, laser discs, computers, videocassettes, and closed-circuit
television. The coordinated system can be directed and monitored from a
central workstation. Information can be obtained from international,
national, regional, and local databases via microwave, cable, telephone, or
fiber optics and put into the district resource computer from which it can
be transmitted to classrooms upon request (Larick, 1986, p. 22).
Against this backdrop of reality is changing demographics, shrinking
financial resources, continued debate on education and its problems and
strategies, and continued revolution in communications technology. How
should goals and priorities be examined? The next step is to examine what
is to be done based on demonstrated need and then decide how to do it. First
it is decided what can be done to help this nation become a nation of
readers. Then the approaches are examined: collections, coalitions, com-
munity education to support the effort, and strategies to get children to
recognize the importance of reading and to want to read. Then available
resources needed to accomplish the task are examined e.g., personnel,
other community agencies, collections, funding. Then strategies are deve-
loped for meeting the shortfall i.e., acquisition of different kinds of
materials, staff development, development of a volunteer cadre, commu-
nity publicity, and legislative lobbying. The overriding concern is to an-
swer the question: "How can we best effect the delivery of information and
educational programs to the young that will enhance their growth and
development into healthy productive citizens of a democratic society?"
The following goals should be considered as deliberations are begun on
Attack the aliteracy problem. Work with those who know how to read
but do not (an adolescent problem that one Westchester County library
manager who is an active spokesperson for service to young adults told
me recently is the most critical information/education problem facing
educators who work with teenagers).
Participate in the teaching of basic information skills.
Assist in the teaching of critical thinking skills.
Help immigrants maintain their culture.
Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 11
Advocate services by other agencies and support those services with in-
Raise literacy. Support adult literacy programs.
Support/implement, enrich, and extend school curricula.
Shelter/after-school activities i.e., provide a safe place.
Provide materials for counseling i.e., bibliotherapeutic use.
Make common knowledge of society available in appropriate forms.
Provide services to unserved groups in the population.
Provide referral services to other human services agencies.
Provide information on social and medical problems of concern to the
Be more effective in working with adults who work with children i.e.,
parents, teachers, grandparents, social workers.
As these priorities are discussed and fleshed out, arguments to consider
are: (1) missions: where, as type of library, youth services librarians differ
and where they support each other; (2) patterns of service and collection
development; (3) recruitment and library education efforts; and (4) the
possibilities of forming coalitions.
As these missions are considered, remember that both school and
public libraries are educational institutions. The school library is con-
cerned with both the schooling of the young and their education. The
public library which has traditionally seen itself as an educational institu-
tion has also felt that it offered these experiences informally and voluntar-
ily. The serendipity of the public library experience is truly one of the most
intriguing aspects of the library for those who use it well. But if a coalition
to improve information services is going to be formed, public librarians
need to cast off the idea that curriculum is a word or process that is to be
avoided. For some the definition of curriculum as planned learning expe-
riences suffices to begin a discussion. Both school and public librarians
serving youth must be cognizant of what is being planned and taught in
the schools if collections are to be developed that serve the information,
learning, and developmental needs of children.
One major thing that prevents moving comfortably into this arena of
joint understanding is a tension between school and public library service
to children that is untenable as youth services librarians plan for the future.
This tension needs to be resolved by a recognition of that tension i.e., its
roots and its counterproductivity.
Braverman (1979) traces this tension back at least to 1913 the year
that Edwin White Gaillard was eased out of his New York Public Library
job as superintendent of work with the public schools and Anne Carroll
Moore brought all services to children under her jurisdiction. As Braver-
man notes, the roots of this tension are both economic and philosophic,
and since the real disagreements and uneasinesses are tacit and often
12 Managers and Missionaries
unrecognized, it is possible for most to pay lip service to the ideal of
cooperation between school and public libraries, but it may not be possible
to cooperate without first confronting a few personal implicit beliefs. As
Braverman (1979) documents this period, she notes that Gaillard "worked
systematically to bring library resources to the schools, which then had few
library services. [This] included supplying classroom collections and help
to teachers, the setting up of a model school library, as well as providing
reference services for students, special collections for teachers and class
visits to the branches" (p. 16). Apparently, reports Braverman, Gaillard's
jurisdiction overlapped with Moore's more than his philosophy did.
"Moore thought that libraries should be used informally and voluntarily
to promote the joy of reading" (p. 17). What a shame that a mission
statement that encompassed all of those objectives could not be hammered
out except for the interactions or lack of interactions and communication
of those early leaders.
On a personal note, one of the genuinely exciting events of being
president of ALSC was participating in a U.S. mission to visit children's
libraries in the U.S.S.R. Participants visited many public libraries, some
school libraries, and trade union and pioneer palace libraries. The first
goal of all libraries in the U.S.S.R. that serve children is to support and
encourage children to read and to see that the materials rtecessary to
complete school assignments are available. Soviet librarians have organ-
ized study areas in public libraries, and public and pioneer palace libraries
have reserve school and text collections. It was emphasized over and over
again how important it is for children to learn to read and to want to read.
It is not suggested that present models be replaced with the Soviet model,
but it is suggested that programs developed in isolation from each other do
not serve youth well.
In the United States, people are socialized by separate organizations,
separate association journals, and separate library school classes, and by
careful distinctions made by commission or omission. Through socializa-
tion, a blend of routines, ideals, selection techniques, programming hab-
its, and expectations are acquired. Things are learned that conflict and
which cannot be believed simultaneously with any logic, but youth ser-
vices librarians go on believing them because they are too busy even to
notice that they have been learned.
Patterns of service and collection development in school and public
libraries must be reviewed in terms of resource sharing demanded by
diminishing financial resources and continued acceleration of informa-
tion produced by research, discovery, and publication by scholars, creative
artists, industry, and groups of citizens demanding to be heard. Acquisi-
tion of materials based on an identification of information, idea, and
knowledge needs determined by educational and developmental needs of
Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 13
users is crucial. A view of nonfiction collections that match needs shaped
by sex, age, and socioeconomic condition must be developed if the young
are going to find libraries truly essential. The response to a child or student
who asks for a "good book" should be motivated by the need of the child
and not just a personal aesthetic response to children's books. And one
should pursue discussions of programs for the next century by realizing
that users are immersed in a flood of information from a startlingly broad
array of sources. It must be considered that without intermediaries, people
can still be information poor if they do not know how to organize it for use,
deal with it critically, and use it for a positive, beneficial purpose. It must
also be realized that when collection development is discussed for the next
century, the discussion should not be just about collections at one site. It
must be known where other collections are located and how data can be
acquired, repackaged, and disseminated. The consultant, facilitator, and
producer roles will define youth services librarians just as much as these are
the roles of the "special" librarian, for all users, regardless of age, will have
options for access. This author must confess that she remains momentarily
helpless still, after all of these years when students say they have
decided to go into public library work rather than school library work
because they love books so much. The future will place many different
demands upon youth services librarians because of personal knowledge
and abilities. "Just the books" won't be enough.
As noted earlier, curriculum is not a naughty word. Going to school is
the full-time job of millions of residents in this country. These residents
need good school libraries and good public libraries. They need school
libraries which are available to them during the day and which are not full
of organized classes teaching library skills in isolation of what is being
presented in the classroom. They need public library collections that will
extend and support what they are learning in school as well as provide
them with the information needed to develop personally.
Public library collection development policies that on the one hand
prohibit acquisitions that might support school work, but that, on the
other hand, articulate the desire to serve the recreation, information, and
cultural needs of children are puzzling. In reviewing several selection
policies, I have found that many are vague and seemingly unresponsive to
children's school needs when describing in positive terms the great infor-
mational needs of the young.
When examining policies: do they reflect the full-time work and needs
of children? Do they reflect technology other than books? Are they positive
supportive statements or are they too careful to list the restrictions? Are
nonfiction books being recommended to an adolescent who says he/she
needs a good book? Have the information needs of patrons been examined
and then materials acquired? Have systems for keeping nonfiction
14 Managers and Missionaries
collections up-to-date and accurate been developed? Are public and school
librarians talking together in a community about sex education, child
abuse, careers of the future, alternatives to a college education, drug abuse,
loneliness, peer pressure, nuclear war, and terrorism? After talking about
those subjects and determining what is being collected, are discussions
being held about practices and patterns of program development for
getting those resources used that will be mutually supportive? Are public
and school librarians talking together about the fact that 34,000 teenagers
died in 1985? All ills cannot be cured nor all problems solved, but the
potential in contributing to answers and solutions for some should at least
Public library service to adolescents as dreamed of in the fifties, sixties,
and seventies is not to be at least in this century. The realities of school,
work, social pressures, and communications technology confront the
avowed mission to adolescents with too much to overcome. Youth services
librarians should face this fact. Public library directors have had to make
choices, and they have dared to allocate this specialization to school
librarians, and they have gotten away with it. It is hoped, however, that
there will always be public librarians with a passion and a concern for
serving adolescents and that they also will provide leadership through
ALA in some organized form both to make certain that public libraries are
serving the information resource needs of these young people. It is hoped
they will care also about the library service in the secondary schools.
The question nagging at many youth services librarians is: where are
the next decades' youth services librarians coming from? In my own state,
the gains made in the seventies in staffing professional children's librar-
ians in public libraries is being eroded: lower salaries than the public
schools, lower salaries than surrounding states, and a desire to be part of a
career ladder are taking their toll. All are familiar with the public school
situation i.e., the shunning of education by the bright, the variety of
career opportunities now open to women, and the alarming retirement
projections for school library media specialists. Where youth specialists
will be educated is slightly less a concern than wondering about their
recruitment. Accredited library schools continue to be dismantled one
closing announced this fall and one undergoing the type of program
evaluation that has typically led to closure. The American Library Associa-
tion has been strangely silent about this phenomenon. In the meantime,
small unaccredited programs in schools of education in small colleges and
universities all over the country are producing large numbers of school
library media specialists entering the field. At this writing neither ALA nor
any of its divisions has any input into the evaluation and guidance of the
development and implementation of these programs. With the closure of
programs has gone the opportunity to provide professional public library
Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 15
directors and children's librarians for many small public libraries, and
with the draining of the pool of qualified librarians goes access. If the
American Library Association is not going to promote education for the
operation of tomorrow's libraries, then it should at least be proposing to
study alternatives for the training of those who will be organizing informa-
tion for delivery to various communities.
Certainly we are beginning to forge coalitions by coming here and
thinking about the future as public and school library media specialists. It
is believed, however, that the leadership of the youth professions should
move more publicly and diligently to identify mutual concerns with other
educational and helping professions. School library media specialists are
coming to see that they can reach more young people if they work more
diligently with the teachers. Public librarians may serve more children and
adolescents also if they make more contacts with adult youth workers in the
community. It was made clear during this Allerton Institute that the
terrible struggle for First Amendment survival is going to be won only if
coalitions are forged between and among organizations, professions, and
the general public. The struggle to produce physically and mentally
healthy young adults will take a coalition of social and public health
workers, service groups, the law, educators, information specialists, librar-
ians, and governments. Should we not begin to identify and promote some
models at the national and state levels to help communities develop some
of the same sorts of working and sharing relationships?
There are wonderful public and private schools in this country. There
are outstanding public library and school library media programs across
the nation. They set the pace and demonstrate excellence. But as we look
ahead to the challenge of providing leadership to the next generation of
librarians who will serve different constituencies than have many of us in a
world that has undergone radical social change, there are things we must
address. It is hoped that this conference will produce new mandates for
library school researchers, the managers, and the missionaries. The man-
date is to examine the mission, the collections, access and adequate staf-
fing, the response to emerging technologies, and cooperative efforts.
The goal should be to have library/media/information services to the
young directed by a professional. As a profession, answers must be found to
the questions of staffing, educating, and recruiting able people and then
work to provide structure to enable the service provider to offer youth the
best in library/media services.
Braverman, M. (1979). Youth, society, and the public library. Chicago: ALA.
16 Managers and Missionaries
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977, February). Disturbing changes in the American family. Education
Digest, 42, 22-25.
Hodgkinson, H. L. (1986, January). What's ahead for education? Principal, 65(3).
Hughes, C. S. (1986, Fall). Teaching strategies for developing student thinking: Strategies for
teachers and for library media specialists. School Library Media Quarterly, 75(1), 33-36.
Lamkin, B. (1986, November). A media center for the 21st century. School Library Media
Quarterly, 33(3), 25-29.
Larick, K. T. Jr., & Fischer, J. (1986, May/June). The Futurist, 20(3), 21-22.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1985). Statistical abstract of the United States: 1986 (106th Ed.).
Washington, DC: USGPO.
President, American Library Association
Director, Berkeley (California) Public Library
Management of Youth Services:
Political, Financial, and Social Implications
Why is it so hard to convince people adult people that children are
important and that they are the brightest and need the best? Why do we
continually undervalue those who serve children, those who teach chil-
dren, and those who care for children? Why must libraries, schools, and
other educational institutions beg for crumbs while society force feeds the
bloated military/industrial complex? Why do aging leaders forget that
youths die when nations fight? Why is the future mortgaged to pay for the
fantasies of the past?
Implications of the Management of Youth Services
It is interesting to note the order in which these implications are
presented. Five years ago we might have seen the fiscal side head the list.
Ten years ago there was a fascination with social implications and societal
changes. Today politics takes first position. That observation is not meant
to imply that political considerations are more important than those of the
budget or those of the surrounding communities, but it is the juxtaposi-
tion that interests this author.
For decades youth services librarians have been missionaries in the
most generic sense. Our foremothers worked long and hard to establish the
importance of library services to young people, to establish patterns and
methods of serving youth, to communicate a strong sense of commitment,
and provide a solid philosophical base. For many years these dedicated
individuals toiled hard in the fields nurturing, pruning, weeding, and
tending the garden. They made it possible to develop means and methods
for today. Youth services librarians owe them a very large debt.
The only way that debt to our foremothers can be paid is to guarantee
that quality library services to children and youth continue to exist and, in
fact, continue to grow and develop. We know that children are the future of
18 Managers and Missionaries
the world. We know that just as there is a debt to the past, there is an equal
debt to the future. This debt must be repaid in the form of a legacy of
superior library services, of humanistic and careful administration, and of
institutions which respond easily and quickly to user needs. It is important
that we work hard to pave the way for the librarians who will follow; the
librarians who will continue the job after we are long gone.
The political implications of life in the 1980s and 1990s force us to
recognize where funding responsibilities lie, how these can be understood,
how these can be affected, and how best to position youth services so that
adequate financial resources allow the provision of superior services. Lots
of folks say that they don't want to be bothered with political activity, that
it is too time-consuming, that it doesn't have anything to do with their
chosen field of endeavor, etc.
Youth services librarians serve the most visible and most vocal clien-
tele in all of libraryland. Children are the most photogenic of library users.
They are cute and just about everyone agrees that children are important.
The job is to get people to put their money where their mouths are and
establish priorities that serve youth well. That requires political
So often it appears as though we forget what truly useful skills youth
services librarians possess. It is easy to use publicity skills and promotional
abilities. To begin with, see to it that flyers announcing programs are
always sent to library management trustees, city councils, and other
governmental agencies. Invite politicos to awards ceremonies. Be sure to
have a photographer there to take pictures, and be sure that the politicos
are aware that a photographer will be there. Don't forget the effectiveness
of the kissing babies syndrome. Post the photographs and send them to the
media. It is assumed here that you know what to send, where to send it, and
who will help to get it published.
Lobbying and political strategies are mostly common sense.
Remember that strength is in numbers and that real strength lies in
affiliating with others who. have similar interests. When E.J. Josey used
coalitions as the theme for his ALA presidential year, he really had the
right idea. It is important that legislators, no matter at what level local,
regional, state, or national see that there is a community of interest and
broad support for the issues we champion. There are the obvious cohorts
such as child care providers, schools, recreation centers, and the not-so-
obvious like senior centers, health care providers, social workers, book-
sellers, local chambers of commerce, and the like. You can find common
ground with just about all these folks, they can support you, and you can
support them. That is what coalition building is all about.
Management of Youth Services 19
It is also important that we keep ourselves well informed, that we
inform allies, and that we speak, if not always with one voice, then at least
in the same key. Be logical, know the issues, and know the interests of your
legislators. Don't worry if, when you call, you speak to an aide. It is often a
legislator's aide that makes decisions, assists in making policy, and advises
Be more than a single issue person (you will find yourself doing this as
you build coalitions). It is important that you watch and read so you are
aware of where your legislator stands. 1 1 is helpful to be able to refer to some
earlier action of the legislator that you liked, some issue on which you
agree with her/him.
If a legislator does right by you, send thanks. Let the legislator know
that you appreciate the help and that you recognize the good he or she has
done. Remember that we often complain and rarely compliment elected
officials. They are human too and certainly appreciate knowing that
somebody likes what they are doing just as you would if you were in that
position. A brief note will do.
Utilize library support groups like Friends of the Library. Everybody
needs friends, and thank God that libraries have them. Friends of the
Library are often listened to better than librarians because they are not
perceived to have a vested interest. Local officials therefore consider them
to be concerned and motivated citizens and pay attention to them. Don't
ever underestimate the power of a vocal, well-informed citizenry on any
elected official. Therefore be sure that your Friends of the Library are
well-informed and are kept up to date. They are extremely valuable to any
library. If you think all of this takes a lot of work, you're right. If you think
you may not be able to do it on work time, you're right. If you think it is a
long row to hoe, you're right.
Two heartening victories in California demonstrated how important
all these lobbying efforts are:
1. In Berkeley after Proposition 13 we passed a local tax measure to
support the public library. It was a massive effort with much work from
the library staff, the Friends of the Library, and many interested local
folks. We passed the measure with 68 percent of the vote. It's good for
ten years and during the life of the measure it will bring in over 30
million new dollars to the library. Not bad for a first effort. We are now
planning for the renewal and continuance of the library tax in 1988. We
have begun the effort to involve the Berkeley community at the primary
planning level and are in the process of identifying critical issues and
long-range needs for the library and its services.
2. In 1983 California's legislature created the Public Library Fund, an act
which gave per capita support to the state's public libraries for the first
time. In 1983 it was $6 million, in 1984 $12 million, in 1985 $18 million,
20 Managers and Missionaries
and we anticipate approximately $20-22 million in 1986. All for public
Neither of these efforts could have been achieved without massive
efforts on the part of those involved. They would have been impossible
without the help and support of the citizenry at large who perceived that
public libraries were a public good and believed that the state had and
continues to have a statewide responsibility to public libraries. State sup-
port of libraries public, academic, and school is critical to develop-
ment, growth, networking, resource sharing. Youth services must be in-
volved in these plans and represent the needs of their clientele.
There are a couple of questions for you. How many of you know: Who
your mayor is? Who the members of the City Council are? Members of
County Boards? State Assemblyman? State Senator? U.S. Congressperson?
U.S. Senator? It is good to know who these people are and how to reach
them. Also, how many of them know you? Think about that for a moment.
We are aware of the past, know the present, and must be ready for the
future. Because of special skills, knowledge, and abilities, we have a debt to
the future that cannot be minimized. People do what they want to do. We
achieve what we want to achieve. Our potential is truly boundless. We have
the resources and the intelligence. We also have the drive and the need. All
we need now is to go out and do it.
Budgets are compilations of numbers. They are meant to help, to
assist, and to guide. They are often used to distract, to restrain, to compel,
and to obstruct. Budgets can be what you make of them. Remember that
while numbers may not lie, numbers don't always tell the whole truth.
A budget is a true test of priorities. No matter what people might say
about how important something is, you must always look at how they
spend their money in order to get a clear picture of what is really impor-
tant. Just take a look at the federal budget and see how much importance
the present administration places on education, the ecology, and defense.
Your library's budget will demonstrate clearly the library's priorities no
matter what the stated objectives may be. As the budget is examined in this
light, many will recognize that this is an uphill battle. It is here that
internal coalitions and internal political activity develops between library
units, divisions, and departments.
Just as we use intelligence in the external political arena, so it is
necessary to know how things work internally i.e., inside the bureau-
cratic institutions. The same rules apply. No matter what the library
setting is like, it will have its own set of internal political considerations. It
is important to develop the ability to lobby, form coalitions, understand
Management of Youth Services 21
climates, communicate effectively, and work within your own
No one can afford to be isolated, or to be perceived as being isolated or
aloof. Today the team or task force approach to problem solving lends
itself well to increased multilevel participation in the quest for solutions.
Recognize the inherent truth in the old adage that if you are not part of the
solution you are part of the problem.
Gathering information, building bridges, and communicating needs
are activities that help. You must know who to talk to and when, you must
understand how to present your needs, how to defend them, how to justify
them, and how to relate them to the overall goals and objectives of the
As you enter this arena you need to know how to play the game, the
lingo, and the rules. You need to know the box scores, the batting averages,
the handicaps, etc. Learn the rules. When I first became an administrator, I
was often asked why. Why did I leave the front lines of library service and
ensconce myself behind a desk protected by a secretary and inaccessible to
the public? Why indeed? I became an administrator because I thought I
could do the job and because I felt I had a mission, a challenge, and a goal
of superior service. I hoped to make the library responsive, user-friendly,
and an integral part of the community it serves. I also hoped to enable the
staff to provide the highest possible level of library services.
This is not a challenge that can be met in a single summer but rather
takes a lot of winters, autumns, springs, and summers. It takes time, effort,
energy, persistence, tenacity, and sometimes sheer dumb stubbornness. A
good manager must not be afraid to make mistakes or be controversial. As
my mother once said when I complained about controversy and hassle: if
you don't have controversy, maybe nothing vital is happening. You're
doing nothing new, no changes are taking place. Nothing risked is
What do you need to know about administration in order to survive
and to become more vital and viable? First, you have to know the ropes.
You have to become aware of the atmosphere, the milieu, the vibes. It is
important that you have the ability to speak the language when you visit
foreign climes, or you'll never be understood by the natives, and for sure
you'll never find the secret passageways to the treasure vaults. Budget
processes generally run throughout the year and it is not unusual for
administration to be working simultaneously on three or even four fiscal
years. It is important that the library's budget cycle is clearly understood
and that the calendar of events and deadlines are kept.
When dealing with justifications, keep in mind that statements need
to be phrased in the boiler plate used inside your bureaucracy. Trends exist
in budgeting just as they do in fashion. Relate cause to effect, effort and
22 Managers and Missionaries
person hours to quantifiable goals and measurable results. Develop pro-
posals which enhance, enable, and extend while demonstrating a clear
understanding of relationships within the bureaucracy.
Allocation of scarce resources (our resources are always scarce) is the
single most important activity of library management. Personnel re-
sources, more commonly known as people, are the most valuable resource
of any library as well as the largest single expenditure often up to 80
percent of the budget. Extreme care must be taken so that precious time is
not wasted so that people are allowed to go about their work efficiently.
Wasting personnel resources is like throwing money into a dustbin. In
preparing proposals, take care that the right people are doing the right
things at the proper levels.
There is no special club for managers, no secret handshakes, no
Egyptian robes to wear. Management is a constant exercise in coping
skills. The real secrets lie in understanding where you are going, how you
are going to get there, what needs to be done, who will do it, and when to
make your move. It is always necessary to be fair, direct, and honest and to
treat others as you like to be treated. Common sense, imagination, and
empathy serve any manager well.
Many librarians serving youth complain that they aren't taken
seriously by their administrators, managers, or supervisors. It seems that
we still suffer from some of the myths about youth services librarians.
Following are some common myths stated in negative terms. A later
discussion will show how they can be turned around and made positive.
Sadly, some of these are self-perpetuating. Youth services librarians: are
childlike, overly identified with client group; are incapable of seeing the
big picture; don't see beyond their own services; are emotional; can't be
reasoned with are stubborn; live in an Ivory Tower; are inflexible; fluster
easily; don't understand budgets; don't know how to justify requests
(because they only ask for what is right, true, just, and good); can't estimate
or forecast; refuse to listen to reason won't compromise; and won't set
priorities because everything is important.
Are any of these familiar? Do you recognize yourselves? It is hoped not.
These myths can be turned around and viewed on the positive side and then
transferable skills can be recognized as being possessed by those serving
For example, anyone who can manage twenty hyperactive children in
a story hour can work easily with a group of reasonably docile adults.
Anyone who can produce flyers, bibliographies, and prepare weekly or
monthly programs has already figured out how to deal with media and
promotion. Anyone who can coordinate and produce summer reading
programs, visits, and do booktalks to classrooms full of "spring-filled"
young adults has organizational skills. Anyone who can evaluate and
Management of Youth Services 23
review thousands of books and relate them to thousands of others in the
collection can certainly understand the "big picture."
It is important that we all understand and use the language of admin-
istration in order to get our points across. Fie, you may say, "don't want to
learn gobbledygook like that." You had best learn this game because it's
the only one in town. If you want to get what's best for your department,
you really must be able to present its needs carefully, in the best possible
light, to those who make the decisions.
It is equally important that you know what is going on in your own
local situation. You should be aware of the political context which sur-
rounds your library. It is important that you be cognizant of changes in
income levels, education levels, population changes, things which can
become predictors of future trends. We are an aging society. Population
forecasts show that by the year 2000 we will have more people over sixty-
five than under eighteen. These changes in population do not negate the
need for quality library services to youth. You must be prepared with your
justifications, your arguments, and your persuasive forces because hard
questions will be asked. You will be expected to come up with the answers.
I am convinced that youth services librarians have underestimated
themselves and have not recognized the transferable skills they possess.
These skills make people eligible for advancement. They enable and
empower, but only when the particular skills, knowledge, and abilities are
recognized, are translated into the appropriate jargon, and are presented
positively. It is endemic to society that those who serve children and youth
are undervalued. Somehow serving children and youth is seen as less
important than taking out the garbage. Anyone can do it after all they're
only kids. What a false and fruitless attitude. However, this attitude per-
sists because we allow it. We don't sing our own praises or shout our
accomplishments. If we don't care enough to take care of ourselves, how
can we expect someone else to do the job for us? A skilled and talented
librarian can easily have a dramatic effect on the rest of a child's life.
Women's professions are traditionally underpaid. Where is it written
that a secretary should earn less than a gardener? The concept of pay equity
is being heard loud and clear in our land, and women in many jurisdic-
tions are fighting for equality, pay parity, and a larger slice of the pie.
Librarians serving youth must join in this effort.
This song rings loud and clear for librarians, 80 percent of whom are
women in a traditionally undervalued market. Most of us work for govern-
ment. We have been patient, calm, and soft-spoken. I believe that era is
over. More and more women are speaking out or are refusing to take a pat
on the head and a high sounding title instead of money. We are insisting on
the value of our labor and the worth of contributions to our institutions.
All librarians who occupy professional positions within a specific
24 Managers and Missionaries
library should be paid on the same scale, regardless of their specialty. This
seems almost too obvious to state. A librarian is a librarian no less because
she happens to serve youth. In fact, children's and young adult librarians
must know two collections and be able to flow easily from adult to
children's materials and back again with ease; a feat not usually required of
specialists in other services.
Promotion for youth services librarians generally means changing the
job and leaving the specialty. I have often felt that there should be a place
for advancement for persons who are expert in an area, but who do not
choose to become supervisors. We are all familiar with the Peter Principle
of advancement: it is almost a truism that the best person at the activity is
not necessarily the best supervisor. We must begin to recognize the value of
a highly skilled and trained children's or young adult librarian. These
folks are worth their weight in platinum. Why can't public libraries
develop a plan which could have a multitude of steps in the salary range of,
say, 10 to 15 with advancement based on continuing education classes,
workshops, conference attendance, and/ or publication. Public schools
have similar plans which allow teachers to advance through a deep salary
range. I don't know of any public libraries that have attempted such a
system, but it surely can be worked on from existing educational parallels.
As I look at what I consider to be promotable qualifications, I am ever
drawn to the skills, knowledge, and abilities I see exhibited by competent
youth services librarians. When I consider what I want to see in a branch
supervisor, I look for a person who can deal with the community, who will
speak out, who has a basic understanding of budget, who understands the
local neighborhood and the library system, who can plan ahead, who
enjoys working with people, and who is eager to forge ahead. Do you
recognize any of your knowledge, skills, and abilities in what I just said?
Do you try to be a part of the overall library system? Do you contribute to
the myriad of committees and efforts that are taking place in your library? I
believe that advancement of competent children's and young adult librar-
ians will serve us well in the long run, putting people in charge who
understand and support youth services.
I firmly believe that we must be proactive if we are to get the kind of
continuing education we need and want. If what you feel is important to
you is not there seek it out. Investigate all the resources at your disposal.
Talk to your colleagues and see if your system might be willing to do some
in-house work and make suggestions as to the continuing education
subjects in which you are interested. Monitor the activities of your local
library association, your state association, and ALA. If you identify a
course that you wish to take, be prepared to show how that course will help in
your daily work (if you wish your library to send you and/ or give you release
time to attend). Also be prepared to share what you learn with your colleagues.
Management of Youth Services 25
It is important to avoid attending the same kind of workshop or
program year after year. It is tempting to attend the author luncheons,
storytelling workshops, or booktalking sessions. I also know and under-
stand how stimulating and refreshing they are and how you can return to
your library re-energized, renewed, and revitalized. However, I submit that
much can also be gained from things outside one's specialty. Workshops
and courses on time management, budgeting, supervision, and evaluation
will also give fresh insights and new approaches. You can adapt what you
learn to your specific situation.
A brief word here about adaptability. Adaptation, in my opinion, is
one of the great skills librarians possess. Background and training allow us
to examine what others do and organize the activity to suit various situa-
tions. Concrete examples of this can be seen in the use of paperback book
racks, in use of graphics, in the design of open spaces, and in the ease with
which we become accurate reflectors of community's needs. I have seen
librarians examine literature racks in a bank carefully and then create an
adaptation for the library that works better. It is not unusual for young
adult librarians to take a commercial product and fix it so it works for
them. It is not only those obvious adaptative skills that are impressive, but
also the constant search for better ways and improvements that has always
convinced me that this profession is much more than the sum of all its
parts. It is also one of the reasons that the average library is the best
managed department in a city, county, or district.
I've said this before today and now I say it again. No one blows your
horn accurately but you. You know all these things already. We live in an
age of assertion, an age of self, and an age of proactivity. It is important that
one is assertive in support of your own efforts and in support of the client
group served. No one else can do it better; few others will do it at all. It is
vital that management be informed of how great your service is and how
wonderfully you perform your duties and meet your objectives. It is also
important that youth services coordinators become part of the library's
management team and take part in the decision-making process.
As I began to think about the social implications inherent in the
management of youth services today, I thought it would be a breeze. After
all, don't we always love to discuss philosophy of services, the good that
these services provide, and the sheer joy with which these services are
provided? I have decided that perhaps that breeze could be closer to hot air
and that indeed it is time to take a new look, participate in a new vision,
and bring ourselves up to speed with tomorrow.
Life in the fast lane typifies the society of the 1980s. Concorde jets
26 Managers and Missionaries
decrease travel time between continents. Tape recorders can speed up
speech so we can listen faster. Fast forward and rewind buttons are used
constantly. Commercials break concentration patterns into twelve minute
segments and batter the senses with ten second messages selling images and
not products. Political leaders are packaged and sold like breakfast cereals,
and no one takes time to discuss the real issues. The facade has become the
reality. Individuals feel powerless and impotent. Automation controls
institutions that have major impacts on life.
It is easy to focus on the difficulties of twentieth-century life and the
United States in particular. It is also easy to refuse to acknowledge them.
Neither path is fruitful. Neither path affords a way to make the best
possible of the best available.
Librarianship is a service profession. It is a profession which enables
us to use our developed skills to empower and enrich others. Librarianship
is a profession which opens doors, shares knowledge, and makes informa-
tion public. We are knowledge brokers in the best and most positive sense.
We are not power brokers. That does not, however, make us weak. The
profession has the capacity to utilize valuable information for the public
good. We need to develop ways and means to ensure that the public always
has access to the information and resources it needs. That is truly the
dilemma this service profession faces today.
I am inordinately proud of us. I never cease marveling at our ability,
our consistency, our intellectual athleticism, and our resiliency in the face
of threats and cutbacks.
Librarianship is also a nurturing profession. It stands for self-
development, continual learning, individual achievement, and personal
curiosity. Youth services librarians continually demonstate those nurtur-
ing skills within bureaucracies. The guidance, encouragement, enthusi-
asm, involvement, and assistance given to youth through their libraries
and their librarians bodes well for the future.
Back to the future and its social implications. As nurturers and service
providers, as guides and enthusiasts, librarianship now stands at the gates
of tomorrow. Whether we can make the roads clear for youth to advance
easily will determine youth service librarians' value, validity, and viability.
Discussions must take place about the nature of. resource sharing as it
applies to children, to school libraries, and to children's materials. It is not
at all uncommon to see that children and juvenile materials are excluded
from interlibrary loan processes. When the formation of multitype library
networks are discussed, school libraries are usually the last to be included.
Generally schools are last-in because of costs, decentralization, lack of staff,
and an often perceived lack of interest in the resources they can share.
The changes that affect society affect youth. How do we manage
information services for youth in the waning days of the twentieth century?
Management of Youth Services 27
How do we assure that young people have access to the information needed
in this era of electronic transfer and storage of information on electronic
databases? Do young people even need them? It is critical that the informa-
tion needs of clients are understood. We need to be aware of how young
people obtain and use information. As more information changes from
print to electronic storage, we must address the needs of students at all
levels and the costs of accessing the information that they need to acquire.
Fees for service can make it impossible for children and young people to get
Children and young adults are creatures of their times. It is impossible
to deny the impact of television on these individuals. It is also important
that we recognize that a generation raised on television and computers
reacts differently than one brought up without the furniture that stares
back and without the appliance that interacts electronically.
I do not advocate tossing out tried and true traditional patterns of
services or approaches to children's literature and interest in quality and
the importance of the oral tradition of storytelling. I also believe that the
level and type of library service we give to children and young people is not
merely important to us; it is critical to their development and to the
I lay before you a challenge. Assist the American Library Association
to recognize and develop an agenda for the twenty-first century. This
agenda will help the profession of young adult librarians to develop new
service patterns for today's youth which will serve tomorrow's adult. I call
upon the leadership of ALA's Youth Divisions ALSC, AASL, and
YASD to begin a triple barreled approach to determine a road map which
will help chart the course and begin to prepare for the third millenium.
Let us examine the status of youth services today, plan what it should
be for tomorrow, recognize what changes have to be made, look at new
service patterns, develop mission statements and goals, see how these affect
library services at all levels, and provide the ALA with a position and a
philosophy. I see this beginning with youth and then becoming broad
based and truly representative of library services at all levels. This study
must begin with youth services since these are the first to handle the
diversity and complexity of the changing society through our children.
Let us walk down these new avenues together and begin to answer the
questions that are only now being formulated. I know that it must be done,
and I know that together we can do it.
Children's Services Consultant
Monroe County Library System
Rochester, New York
Design of Youth Services
How will the public library or school media center's program of service
relate to the changing needs of youth? Take the word design how do you
interpret it? As the grand scheme of things, the master plan, a schematic, a
blueprint? A blueprint is a detailed specific set of guidelines for creating a
building from paper to brick. For the purpose of this discussion, the
concept of a blueprint will be used as an approach to designing youth
services for a specific situation.
When a blueprint concept was selected for this presentation, actual
blueprints were examined to ascertain the areas and specific components
for a building. They include: elevations, roof plans, foundations, plumb-
ing, mechanics, electrical, or source of energy. Use this approach to ener-
gize your thinking of designing service with six designated areas. Instead of
citing areas identified as the living room, kitchen, bedroom, etc. for a
household building, six areas are identified with specif ic functions which,
when aligned in place with each other, comprise a total children's and
young adult library service facility. They are:
Communication Center In Touch
Reflections Room of Mirrors Image
Information Retrieval Center Access
Library-Den-Study Literacy, education
Energy Center Pulse, power, programs
Community Hub Outreach, community involvement
A center of communication means being in touch with your counter-
part school or public librarian, parents, teachers, library administrators,
trustees, and community agencies. How many times a year do you meet
with your school or public librarian, have lunch together, send memos to
each other, forward project plans, trade reading lists, share books and
equipment, or present programs jointly?
Managers and Missionaries
Figure 1. Design for Youth Service
Do you offer parents evening and weekend programs on how to
parent, sessions on child abduction, programs on new books for all ages,
computer courses where parent and child are enrolled together, programs
on how to pick a nursery school or summer camp? Youth services librar-
ians must also be in touch with teachers. This involves honoring requests
for assignments and reading lists and providing specially-planned pro-
grams on a topic such as science fairs.
Youth services librarians must also be in touch with the administra-
tion of the library. To make the administration an advocate and supporter
Design of Youth Services 31
of youth services, they must be informed of what is taking place, how
services are being provided, and what is needed to meet the community's
needs. Constant reminders should be made to administrators of how the
children's department makes them and the library look good. Submit
monthly reports, send selected new books once a month for administrators
to see, provide anecdotes for the board, and report to the board on a special
program with a minimum appearance of once a year.
Another group to keep in touch with is trustees. Have you taken them
on a tour of the children's area or sent them copies of any booklists you've
prepared? Do you know their names so you can greet them personally? Are
you demonstrating in a positive, professional way that the library is not
just a babysitting service for children? If the library's program of service is
not up to standard, the best chance of raising it is to court the trustees.
Other agencies serving parents and youth are also important in keep-
ing in touch with. You need to know what they are doing, and they need to
be aware of the library. Have you applied jointly for grant funds to under-
write a project? Have you discussed a joint strategy for sponsoring a program?
Yes, all this sounds like you are doing it all. Even though communica-
tion is defined as being two-way, your communication signals have to be
stronger and more frequent to guarantee a return of even 25 percent.
Communication is your form of commercial. It's more than public
relations. It's a way of telling what you have to offer and selling your
service. Think of your communication center as the hub with the spokes
sending out signals to the school librarian, teachers, parents, children,
administration, and agencies.
The reverse holds true for school media specialists. Are you in touch
with your counterpart? Are you in touch with the parents of your students?
What service are you providing for them? Are you in touch with teachers?
Do they know what you can do for them? Are you in touch with your
administration? Aside from all the reports you're required to submit, have
you sent the administration one memo citing an especially rewarding
project that took place in the media center or sent a photo of a child shown
achieving a particular level of success with a computer program or learn-
ing kit for the school bulletin board?
Another group to communicate with are school board members. Do
you know who they are? At an open house, have you targeted a packet of ma-
terials for them or a bookmark with their names done in computer graphics?
Service to children is the cornerstone of public library service and
school education. We are creating the library users of tomorrow, the voting
adults who pull the lever for library funding and school bond issues, and
the future contributors to the community, state, and beyond. Communica-
tion is your form of commercial. Use it to sell your product i.e., library
32 Managers and Missionaries
Reflections Room of Mirrors
What kind of image do we convey within the profession, to other
professions, and to ourselves? Numerous publications have pressed the
point that it is not sufficient for children's and young adult specialists to
just have skills for working with young people. They must also have
training in managerial skills and must be seen and perceived as managers.
Every children's specialist serves as a manager on two separate levels. One
level covers the responsibilities of providing, maintaining, and utilizing a
collection of materials either in the school or public library. These are the
day-to-day activities involved in managing a children's library department
(Cummins, 1980, pp. 7-10).
The second level of management is the children's specialist as a
supervisor and a member of the management team. It is at this level,
regardless of the size of the staff or library, that the children's librarian has a
function and responsibility as part of the overall decision-making process
that governs the library and its service. This means that you must be able to
present your program of service in terms of goals and objectives and learn
to use statistics to make a case; you must be able to present a budget in terms
the director can use, in terms that governmental forces want to hear, and in
terms that express your needs and programs convincingly. You need to be
able to make a public presentation, address various kinds of boards, and
talk in terms that a particular group will understand and nod in
You need to be politically savvy. The board or council as a whole
determines your budget but individual members make up that board. Who
knows if the father of one of your preschool children might be vice-mayor
and that subtle reinforcement of the positive aspects of library programs
could eventually translate into funds. The same is true for the school media
specialist. Know the members of the Board of Education. The election or
appointment of a librarian or Friend of the Library could provide benefi-
To keep your image polished requires feeling and looking alert and
energized. Everyone needs stimulation to keep abreast, to be perceptive, and
to be invigorated, and that requires continuing education. Reading journals
and talking to peers and other librarians will provide new ideas but not to
the extent and stimulation that workshops, conferences, institutes, and
in-service training will.
Continuing to learn after two or twenty-two years on the job is a
measure of professional attitude and commitment to the profession. In-
volvement in library associations is important. Just paying dues is not
sufficient in terms of presenting image. Involvement builds pride in being
a librarian and a youth specialist.
Design of Youth Services 33
Information Retrieval Center
Information retrieval requires access. A multitude of information is
stored in the center how and when may young people retrieve it, and how
do you as the librarian interface with it?
The first way to provide access to information is by eliminating
unseen barriers. Are children able to use and borrow materials from any
section of the library? Does their library card restrict them by age or grade to
numbers or kinds of items they may use or borrow? Are children included
in interlibrary loan (ILL) programs? Are there any rules local or state
that eliminate them from being able to request materials on ILL? If so, they
are being denied service.
The second way to retrieve information is by format. Can children use
the computer in the library, can they request database searches, are they
allowed the use of the microfilm reader-printer? When automation deci-
sions are made on the administrative level, the youth specialist must insist
on equal treatment and equal consideration for young people.
A third aspect of access is physical. For young children, can they reach
the top shelves, especially if the juvenile nonfiction is intershelved with
adult materials? Are steps, counters, and furniture scaled appropriately for
primary age children? If not, when renovations, remodeling, or new build-
ings are planned, it is incumbent upon the children's librarian and school
media specialist to provide input to those people making those types of
decisions to "design" with children in mind, including placement of the
children's area. Access is an important consideration. Children must have
it, otherwise they are inhibited in their growth, their learning, and their
attitude toward libraries.
With spoken and visual formats of information expanding broadly,
another element of access comes into play. Adele Fasick, in "Moving into
the Future without Losing the Past," talks about children's need to hear
language and speak language as a precursor to understanding and assimi-
lating printed language and words. Background and experience determine
differing responses by children to film or print and to ways in which
information is learned and received. Librarians need to be able to assess
and evaluate which format is best for a specific child (Fasick 1984, pp.
Then there is access to information for the youth services librarian.
Another communication link could be formed between the school librar-
ian and the public librarian by ordering materials via computer. If the
public or school librarian can punch up a screen to see if a particular title
has been ordered, that is access to information that translates into wise
If this is not feasible, does the public librarian send reports or records
34 Managers and Missionaries
of selection lists or new books and nonprint acquired to the school person?
Does the school media specialist in turn send lists of new software, equip-
ment, and project assignments to the public library person?
You as the librarian are the advocate for access to information for
children. Also remember that access to information for you is another
interface with the whole information center.
Library Den Study
Literacy and education as a broad topic encompasses print literacy,
visual literacy, computer literacy, and technology literacy. To keep up
with children, librarians must be computer literate. Children are as com-
fortable using computers in various facets of their educational life as well
as their home life as we were with typewriters. There is a natural affinity
between students and microcomputers. The public library and the school
library should serve as links between the natural desire of the child to learn
about his world and the equipment necessary to accomplish it (Lintner,
1985, pp. 91-93). We need to know how to operate a computer or word
processor and know what computers can do for us.
But that alone is not sufficient. The rate at which technology is
changing and advancing is extremely fast. It is not conceivable that an
individual children's librarian can keep pace with or on top of the newest
format, the latest development, or the 8000th model of a piece of equip-
ment, but it is conceivable and necessary that the youth librarian be
aware of what is developing, knowing that change is constant, and being
alert to updates of technology through journals and conferences.
Of course, we as librarians support literacy, but you must decide what
is the library's role in helping with the literacy problem. Is it as simple as
providing space for tutors to work with students, or should you be involved
more directly? Philosophies differ on this issue so the critical thing is to
determine the extent of the library's or system's responsibility. Provision of
materials for both children and adults is basic and so is a congenial
atmosphere. Is staff time also made available for them to work with tutors
or student groups?
Actually, most of the programs children's librarians plan have literacy
at the core e.g., by fostering a love of books and stories, relating books
with activities, exploring films and books together, sponsoring reading
clubs, and so on.
Other programs that can be used to visibly promote reading in the
community are read-a-thons with local celebrities, media coverage for the
March of Dimes Reading Champions, and other agency campaigns. Learn
to use any connections as features of literacy e.g., local people on award
committees, a local sports figure to hand out prizes or certificates at library
Design of Youth Services 35
activities, pictures of the mayor reading with his/her grandchildren or
holding a favorite children's book. Use all of the available national promo-
tions and add a local twist.
At the recent AASL conference in Minneapolis, William Bennett, the
U.S. Secretary of Education, called librarians the ambassadors of literacy.
He cited the most important responsibility of elementary schools is to
teach children how to read and become active and avid readers (Flagg, 1986,
Dr. Seuss put it more succinctly in the new book, Once Upon a Time,
published for the 20th anniversary of Reading is Fundamental: "The more
you read, / the more things you know. / The more that you learn, / the
more places you'll go" (Dr. Seuss, 1986, p. 41). Recognize that unless there
is a commitment to literacy, there may be fewer and fewer readers to serve.
The energy center is the power behind your service, the pulse of
activity that energizes program offerings. It is the "life" of the children's
library in the community. The energy must come from you, the children's
librarian, and from the programs you plan.
If you have had a Saturday morning film program for years and years
and the attendance has dwindled from 175 kids to 25, that should tell you
something. For many reasons this program no longer has the appeal it
previously did the over-familiarity of 16 mm films as a medium, passive
instead of active programming, and a program format that has become
routine and dull. Drop it or change it and in its place try something that
involves children. All programming does not have to be passive.
Try having children make their own films. With very simple equip-
ment, kids can draw on film, or create animation with live characters or
clay figures. Do a whole animation series. Have children make flipbooks
and move on to other animation forms. A show could be presented at the
end of the series and maybe a local camera shop would sponsor the event or
supply the equipment.
Expand your programming with other age levels. Intergenerational
programs that use senior citizens with elementary age children can bring
new life to both groups. Craft workshops and reading skill groups are
examples, but the possibilities are extensive. In exchange, have the kids
teach computer skills to the seniors. A good example of tapping the talents
of senior citizens to use with children is a program created in Iowa called
"From Sheep to Shirt." Members of a local weavers guild brought looms,
two craftswomen brought their spinning wheels and dye pots, and a 4-H
student brought her sheep to demonstrate sheep shearing. The occasion
provided a first-hand experience and understanding of the fabric process
36 Managers and Missionaries
for the children who attended (Irving, 1985, pp. 82-84). The goodwill and
support that is gained from this approach is immeasurable support you
can't buy but is worth money on a bond issue.
Expand your programming to other agencies and institutions. Con-
sider jointly sponsoring a program with the art or science museum. Use
special exhibits for program inspiration. A dinosaur exhibit could spring-
board into a program of dinosaur models/ stories/ riddles, or a medieval
festival at the gallery would be perfect for dragon tales told in both
locations. A unique project could take place by applying jointly for
funding from Arts Councils, Poets-in-Residence, etc. What programs can
you plan with the local Association for the Education of Young Children,
YWCA, or YMCA?
Expand your thinking about programs. Look for new ideas and topics
that will be featured by other organizations, ways of underwriting projects
that need funds, and initiate communitywide events such as read-a-thons
or cosponsorship of an author-illustrator with a bookstore or PTA.
Bring technology into your programming particularly in the schools.
Use interactive video to involve an entire school building in a project on
reliving history or taking a trip into space. Connecting a videodisc, video-
tape, filmstrip, or slide projector to a microcomputer allows the student to
make interactive decisions involved with a scenario (Troutner, 1983, pp.
337-340). Think of the possibilities.
Does your school or library have cable access and capabilities? Besides
routine school newscasts, instructional demonstrations, and story pro-
grams, how about having students present book reviews on the air and
running them as spot announcements during the day or in the school
cafeteria at noon time?
The Energy Center is where things happen. It is the pulse, the power
source that gives your library vitality. Make it come alive with creative, fun,
and involving activities.
To get community involvement you need to know your community
i.e., percentages of population by age, ethnic groups, diversity, and loca-
tion. What do demographics tell you about the community? What is the
birthrate in your area? What ethnic group is having the most babies?
The 1980 census reveals the average white in America is thirty-one
years old, the average black twenty-five, and the average Hispanic only
twenty-two, which shows a definite population momentum for minorities.
It indicates that the average Hispanic female is just moving into the peak
childbearing years while the average white female is moving out of them
(Hodgkinson, 1985, p. 3).
Design of Youth Services 37
This is why California now has a majority of minorities in its elemen-
tary schools, while Texas schools are 46 percent minority, and half the
states have public school populations that are more than 25 percent non-
white, while all of the twenty-five largest city school systems have minority
majorities (Hodgkinson, 1985, p. 3).
The 1980 census indicates that 59 percent of the children born in 1983
will live with only one parent before they reach eighteen that becomes the
normal childhood experience. Of every 100 children born today, twelve
will be born out of wedlock, forty will be born to parents who divorce
before the child is eighteen, five will be born to parents who separate, two
will be born to parents of whom one will die before the child is eighteen,
and forty-one will reach age eighteen "normally" (Hodgkinson, 1985, p.
You don't exist without your community. Libraries are next to Mom
and apple pie, but without people children and adults you have no
business. So service is the key. Do you have a large number of families
where both parents work? Has attendance at the regular morning story
hour dropped because of few children or because those children are in
day-care centers? Demographics indicate that the number of children
eligible for Head Start type of programs will increase in the next decade as
the number of children in poverty continues to expand. That number of
eligible children has increased by one-third while the funding for the
programs remained the same as in 1985. How does that affect preschool
services in schools and public libraries? Should an evening story hour
program be offered to those parents? Should the public library plan weekly
sessions with Head Start, should the Head Start groups meet in the public
library or in the school library, where will Head Start programs get
materials and books without sufficient funds?
Reading parents have reading children. Libraries should foster pro-
grams for parents, informational and educational programs to help them
"parent" e.g., how to choose day-care facilities, how to choose educa-
tional toys, discussions of quality videos that are available for purchase,
computer instruction with their kids, cable TV programs on good books,
etc. Consider parent-child learning centers as an alternative approach to
programming for preschoolers. The learning centers are special places in
the library where parents and children interact together. The tactile expe-
riences, "hands-on" art processes, music, and physical activities are
designed to enhance the development of prereading skills and directly
involve the parent in the learning process (Rogers & Herrin, 1986, pp.
343-355). The benefits are parent education, service to children, and a
positive attitude toward the library.
Other programs and services that reach out into the community are
read-a-thons with local bookstores and local celebrities, summer reading
38 Managers and Missionaries
programs for which schools loan copies of their books to public libraries
for the summer, reading competitions that reward quality reading in
liaison with the schools, a holiday activity program on a Saturday for
children to allow parents to go shopping without them.
The library should be seen as a focal point of the community, provid-
ing service and responding to its needs. A major factor in families is the
high percentage of women in the work force. The number of latchkey
children has shown a major increase and will continue to rise. There are at
least 4 million school age latchkey children in the United States (Hodgkin-
son, 1985, p. 8). Where are they after school in your community?
Susan Rosenzweig, information manager for the Center for Early
Adolescence, has identified criteria for developing responsive after-school
programs for young adolescents that are what children and parents want.
The successful programs use community resources, invite parent partici-
pation, provide staff training, utilize interagency cooperation, and demon-
strate longevity in the community. They are proof that energetic and
committed adults can meet the challenge of aiding and promoting the
healthy development of adolescents (Center for Early Adolescence, 1983,
Agencies are part of the community hub. Can your library assist with
providing collections of books, provide training to leaders and staff in
areas like puppet making and how to share and read a book, or write a
newsletter every several months with titles of new preschool books avail-
able at the public library?
For teachers and school librarians, how about an annual open house
to talk about the best children's books of the year? The books the public
librarian is "selling" to kids are the ones the school librarian needs to know
since children may be asking for them. If the public librarian prepares a
booklist of gift books, it should be sent to the school librarian. Even better,
almost every school district has a newsletter that is sent to parents and
taxpayers. The school and public librarian should jointly write an article
on books to give as gifts to children. Corresponding displays are a good
reinforcement. Share your enthusiasm for books by helping teachers bring
books into the classroom, helping school librarians keep current with new
titles, and helping parents select books to buy with recommended
These people are paying the taxes that support your library, school or
public. Plan your service to benefit them and involve them.
Does all of this sound like you're expected to be six people rolled into
one? Yes, it does. The truth of the matter is that the children's librarian and
Design of Youth Services 39
school media specialist are the Renaissance people of the profession. You
are expected to know how to run the children's department, know the
children's materials both print and nonprint, plan programs, work at the
adult reference desk to help cover the schedule (or fill in in the classroom),
know the best-sellers and adult reference materials, understand computers
and automation, provide outreach to the community, know how to deal
with teenagers, have competent managerial skills, often serve as second in
command, and smile as you try to cram sixty hours of work into a thirty-
five to forty hour work week. Is the adult librarian expected to know
children's books? Is a teacher expected to fill in in the school library? Who
covers the children's section when you are not there most likely a page or
an aide? Is the director or supervisor expected to have specialist skills as
well as administrative ones? The answers are no. Nor is this inequity likely
So how are you supposed to find time to "design" youth services? You
make time (remember, youth specialists can do anything). If you don't
have a vision of service in mind and goals in sight, your library's service to
children is apt to be underfunded, unused, uninviting, or unappreciated.
Hugh Atkinson, in his article "Strategies for Change: Part I," stated:
"The prime thing to remember when trying to plan, perform, or simply
survive library activities in the next decades is that the value of library
successes comes from meeting the needs of the patrons. Those patrons are
changing their attitudes, their economic status, their needs. When our
patrons change, then we must change too" (Atkinson, 1984, p 58).
Take a step backward and take a hard look at your current program of
service. Use demographics to determine the changes that are shaping your
future community, the next decade of children and parents, and the decade
after that. What are those changes telling you about the needs of the
Stop and look at the pie plan, implement, and evaluate in terms of
these six areas: ( 1 ) communication center, (2) reflections room of mirrors,
(3) information retrieval center, (4) library den study, (5) energy center,
and (6) community hub. Are you in touch; does your image shine; are all
avenues of access open to you and the youth you serve; what is your
library's role in literacy; is there life, vitality, and energy lighting up your
library; and do you know your community and are you involving them in
using the library? As long as all of the pieces are in place and aligned with
each other, you have a blueprint, a design for service. You are establishing
the significance of libraries in an individual's life and the community's
existence. The library youth specialist is the Renaissance person of tomor-
row. Work from the past, assess the now, design the future.
40 Managers and Missionaries
Center for Early Adolescence. (1983). 3-6 p.m.: after-school programming for early adoles-
cence. Top of the News, 40, 37-47.
Cummins, J. (1980). Management in children's services. The Bookmark, 39, 7-10.
Fasick, A. M. (1984). Moving into the future without losing the past: Children's services in the
information age. Top of the News, 40, 405-413.
Flagg, G. (1986). In the news: "no adversary," says Bennett. American Libraries, 17, 737-739.
Hodgkinson, H. L. (1985). All one system: Demographics of education- kindergarten through
graduate school. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.
Irving, J. (1985). From sheep to shirt: Intergenerational approaches to library programs. Illi-
nois Libraries, 67, 82-84.
Lintner, B. (1985). Computers and kids: Capitalizing on a natural compatibility. Illinois
Libraries, 67, 91-93.
Once upon a time.... (1986). New York: Putnam.
Rogers, P., & Herrin, B. (1986). Parent-child learning centers: An alternative approach to li-
brary programming for preschoolers. Top of the News, 42, 343-355.
Troutner, J. J. (1983). The magic of interactive video. Top of the News, 39, 337-340.
Beckman, M. (1987). Online catalog development at the University of Guelph. Library
Trends, 35, 527-537.
Florida Center j or Library Automation Technical Bulletin. (1986). 1(5), 3.
Florida, Postsecondary Education Planning Commission. (1988, February 25). Automation
and Networking for Florida Libraries, p. iv.
Hildreth, C. R. (1987). Beyond Boolean: Designing the next generation of online catalogs.
Library Trends, 35, 647-667.
Linsley, L. S., et al. (1986). The future is now the online catalog. Poster Session, 19.
Nielson, B., & Baker, B. (1987). Educating the online catalog user: A model evaluation study.
Library Trends, 35, 571-585.
Young Adult Services Coordinator
Spokane Public Library
Coalition-Building: Maybe Tomorrow?
It's Tuesday morning at Spokane Public Library. You work your way from
the car to the employee's entrance through thirty-five people clutching
shopping bags. It's the annual Friends of the Library Used Book Sale. You
can get in they have to wait until nine. They glare. You enter rather more
quickly than usual. "Hey, Tyson! Guess what your kids were up to last
night?" It's the maintenance man. He found the patron sunflower shell
stash. You smile and move on not stopping to point out that last week,
when they spoke to the city council in support of library funding, they were
"our kids." A reference librarian shares the elevator with you. "You've got
to do something about those teachers! I've had it with kids who have to read
the same book twenty-five of them last night alone, all looking for some
novel that went out of print in 1920." "Yes." you smile. "It's always hard
when...." "I don't want sympathy. I want action!"
In the office you reach for the phone. A call to the school is in order,
but the director stops by first. "Nice work you did on that budget justifica-
tion. " You begin to bask. "Excellent work for a first draft." The glow fades.
"You will have the fleshed-out version in by five, won't you?" Oh well.
Who needs lunch? You reach for the phone again, but the first of the young
adult selection team drifts in. "I hope you don't expect to see many high
school book talks this year. I just can't seem to get in the door." "Well,
actually, there are a few other things you could try...." The collection
development coordinator leans through the doorway. "Meeting today?
Remember if you want the rest of your materials allocation for this year I'll
need your order forms by this afternoon." "We're losing money?" chorus
the rest of the staff. "But I need more D and D!" "V. C. Andrews!" "Sweet
Christy Tyson, now Youth Services Consultant with the Alabama Public Library Service,
was, at the time of the Allerton Conference, Young Adult Services Coordinator at Spokane
(Washington) Public Library.
42 Managers and Missionaries
Valley High!" "Yes, but Nancy here has an interesting problem. How do
you get invited to a school if your first contact doesn't work?" "I told her
what worked for me. She just didn't want to listen." "Can't we postpone
this until next month? I want to order replacements today."
By late afternoon you can breathe a minute. The budget draft is
completed. You've submitted your order forms. You've even had a minute
to talk with a few young adults who stopped by. You pause. You reach for
the phone. The acquisitions clerk brings back your order cards
"Incomplete." Can't call now. It's time to search for missing ISBNs.
You return to your office. The mail has arrived. The phone still waits,
but it's really too late to call now. You sort through the mail. Three
publisher's catalogs same company all addressed to you by name. An
invitation to a Planned Parenthood Open House. You'll have to say no. It's
the same time as your shift on the reference desk. A newsletter from the
regional library association announcing upcoming workshops. Today the
one on time management looks especially appealing. You check the dates.
You hope the people who attended last week enjoyed it. You pause to curse
your place on the routing slip. Ah, at last the latest issue of your favorite
library journal. You open the cover, lean back, and freeze as you read the
title of the lead article "Better Living through Coalition-Building. "You
look at the phone. You hear the voice of your library professor echoing in
your memory: "Good outreach is action, not reaction." The line on your
job description comes back to haunt you: "Is responsible for interacting
regularly with other youth-serving agencies in the community." You
gently pound your head against the desk top.
In reality, of course, most days are not quite so overwhelming. I do
manage to find time to interact with school personnel, usually through
monthly lunches, and to visit most of the youth-serving agencies in the city
at least once a year. However, I am all too aware that there is much more
that should be done if we are to develop a program that supports the needs
and interests of Spokane's young people as fully as they deserve. I also
know that even on the most hectic of days I have choices. I would like to
think that those choices are based on the library's goals and objectives.
However, I know that there are other factors at work for me, and, I suspect,
for others in youth services as well. I don't find much value in harangues or
breast-beating. Instead, I would like to step back and explore how
coalition-building is supported or resisted by the profession.
Coalitions are most commonly defined as groups of agencies, organi-
zations, or individuals with different missions but with some commonality
of concerns or interests, coming together to address those areas. Coalitions
may be informal such as the once-a-month lunches in Spokane or may
be highly formalized national or even international groups such as the
Coalition for Literacy or the National Coalition Against Censorship.
Coalitions often lead to more formalized structures such as networks or
cooperatives in which contracts are drawn, resources allocated, and mis-
sions modified or expanded to reflect the needs of participating agencies as
well as the new organization as a whole.
From the earliest days of youth services in American libraries, exam-
ples of coalition-building can be found. As early as 1896, when Anne
Carroll Moore became head of the Children's Library at Pratt Institute in
Brooklyn, the pattern was set. She worked intensively with settlement
houses in the area in order to introduce children of the poor to the library
despite restrictive policies and protectionist practices of the time. Her work
continued through the 1920s at New York Public Library where she is
credited with bringing thousands of children into the library, in no small
part due to the cooperative relationships she developed with local agencies
(Braverman, 1979, pp. 16-72).
In 1906, New York Public Library set another early example of pio-
neering school-public library interaction. A position was established just
to work with schools. Branch libraries were surveyed, resources relegated,
staff evaluated, and programs planned to address school-related needs.
Through the 1950s this program intensified and expanded to include
vocational and parochial schools and also began to include other agencies
concerned with youth (Braverman, 1979, pp. 79-113).
In Cleveland, too, the pattern of coalition-building was established
early. By the 1940s Jean Roos, administrator of work with youth at Cleve-
land Public Library, was active on at least twenty youth committees in the
area. As at New York Public Library, the connection with local schools was
strong, with the public library being responsible for providing school
library services in the late 1800s and early 1900s. By the 1920s, the Board of
Education had assumed responsibility for providing the quarters for
school libraries and for materials that directly related to the curriculum,
but the public library shared the cost of salaries and provided support
materials, a model of joint planning that continued in one form or another
through 1970 (Braverman 1979, pp. 116-177).
Such models are not solitary exceptions or remnants of a bygone era.
Indeed, the profession itself has called for and continues to call for
coalition-building as part of every library's youth services program.
"Young Adult Services in the Public Library" (Public Library Associa-
tion, American Library Association [ALA], in 1960) and "Standards for
Children's Services" (1964) both call for cooperation with schools and
other youth-concerned agencies. The first states, "the young adult librar-
ian should maintain contacts with all community agencies serving teen-
agers and young adults" (Public Library Association, 1960). It goes on to
recommend that if a forum for interaction does not exist, the library would
do well to take the lead in establishing such a forum. "Standards for
44 Managers and Missionaries
Children's Services in Public Libraries" echoes this recommendation in its
Service Objective number 6: "To serve as a social force in the community
together with other agencies concerned with the child's welfare" (Public
Library Association, 1964). It further advises that this responsibility be
extended to the state and national levels as well.
At the state level, an examination of guidelines for youth services in
libraries, from those states that have such guidelines, reveals that the call
for coalition-building is strong:
From Illinois "Communication and cooperation with schools and
other community agencies serving children should be encouraged and
supported" (Illinois Library Association, 1978).
From Nebraska "The local library must take advantage of the support
available from the library system and the state library agency as well as
cooperating with school media centers and other community agencies,
groups and organizations in planning programs for young people"
(Nebraska Library Commission, 1984).
From New York "Cooperation with other local agencies serving youth
and close working relationships with schools are essential for the public
library to maintain community awareness.... Working with community
agencies can help the children's librarian provide better service to chil-
dren.... The children's librarian should establish cooperative relation-
ships with other libraries in the community" (New York Library Associ-
From Ohio "Cooperation with schools, school media centers and
community social service agencies concerned with the welfare of chil-
dren is encouraged. A sharing and blending of skills, personnel and
ideas will benefit all involved" (Ohio Library Association, 1984).
From Vermont "The public library should serve as a social force in the
community by cooperating with other agencies concerned with the
child's welfare.. ..libraries should cooperate with other agencies in the
community to plan and carry out library-related programs for children.
This means the library going into the community as well as groups
coming into the library.... There is a need for continuous communica-
tion between the public library and schools, nursery schools and day care
centers in order that all children benefit from the services the public li-
brary can provide.... A library has the civic responsibility to cooperate
with social agenices and institutions involved with education, enrich-
ment and well-being of children in the community" (Vermont Depart-
ment of Libraries, 1979).
The 1985 American Library Association President's Program theme
was "Forging Coalitions for the Public Good." Three of the eight recom-
mendations in "Alliance for Excellence: Librarians Respond to A Nation
at Risk" are based on intertype library cooperation. Federal funding in the
form of Library Services and Construction Act Title III grants have been
allocated just to support interlibrary cooperation. The literature contains
many examples of coalition-building, and most of these include a strong
call for others to begin or increase their commitment.
Coalition-building is firmly rooted in our professional traditions. Its
value is reflected in virtually every document describing youth services
from the state or national perspective. Calls for action appear regularly in
library literature. Then coalition-building must be an established part of
every youth services librarian's work. Yet my experiences in Spokane lead
me to believe differently. A 1986 survey conducted in Washington State
also indicates that coalition-building is not as widespread as we might
assume. Of the sixty-six responding children's and young adult librarians,
only twenty-six or 39 percent met with other youth services librarians in
their areas to discuss issues and coordinate activities and programs with
any regularity at all. Sixty percent had not interacted with other youth
services librarians outside their own systems at all during the last year.
This disparity between professional expectations and actual experiences
demands further consideration. Each of us must ask ourselves: How do I
feel about the importance of coalition-building in my work? Is it a high
priority? Am I doing as much as I should? Am I doing as much as I would
like? Do I enjoy the coalition-building I do? What do I feel are the major
obstacles to doing more?
In a 1986 survey, thirty-one children's and young adult services spe-
cialists representing twenty-one states were asked similar questions. Some
interesting perceptions were revealed. While the majority viewed
coalition-building as the third highest priority of their youth services
program (following collection development and reference/reader's guid-
ance), 26 percent admitted that they were doing only "so-so" and 42
percent saw themselves as doing "not much of anything" in terms of
achieving success (see Appendix 1). It should be noted that, while this
perception may seem rather grim, collective assessment of success in out-
reach is even lower. However, that is another story. For our purposes the
pattern is clear. My concerns are not unique. A significant portion of youth
services librarians see themselves as doing almost all they should in such
in-house, patron-responsive functions as collection development, reader's
guidance, and reference, but when they move into more proactive func-
tions such as outreach, programming, and coalition-building, our percep-
tions of success take a decided dip. We know what we should be doing, but
we don't do it. A number of respondents chose to add explanations for low
success citing lack of administrative support, uncooperative staff, diffi-
culty of planning for activities outside the library, lack of time, or
lack of money. I have no doubt that all these factors play a very large part.
They do for me. However, two other factors must also be considered i.e.,
46 Managers and Missionaries
perhaps the success level is not in our administrative support but in
Even Ferber, a library consultant and specialist in human resource
development, lists the following as necessary for effective coalition-
Interpersonal Communication, including contacting (establishing rapport),
active listening (attentiveness, clarifying, paraphrasing), appropriate nonverbals
(eye contact, body language).
Negotiation, including data gathering, strategizing, probing, blocking attacks,
building on others' ideas, acknowledging, constructively criticizing.
Group Process Facilitation, including maintenance of group cohesion, getting
the task done.
Assertiveness and Proactive Skills, including self-initiating, self-directing, self-
Networking Skills, including initiating contacts, convening groups, acting as
Problem-Solving, including brainstorming, problem identification and analysis,
Organizational Savvy, including knowledge of power and influence in the orga-
nization through theory, data gathering and analysis.
A Healthy Self Image, including good internal sense of worth, appropriate dress
and appearance. (Ferber, personal communication, August 13, 1986)
All of these areas even the last can be strengthened through train-
ing, yet few are included in most library school course offerings. An
examination of course listings from fifty-four ALA-accredited master's
degree programs revealed that only four offer courses that might support
students in the development of any of these skills. Clearly there is a conflict
between professional expectations and professional training at least at
the master's degree level. Lack of training cannot help but contribute to the
lack of confidence which must impact both our perceived and actual
success as coalition builders. We see ourselves as doing very well in the
areas most commonly included in library coursework e.g., collection
development and reference/reader's guidance. Respectively, 35 percent
and 25 percent felt: "We are doing all we should," and 64 percent and 44
percent gave themselves at least an above-average rating in these areas.
However, coalition-building, one of the areas that depends on the kind of
skills Ferber describes, was rated as highly successful by only 16 percent of
the respondents and moderately successful by an additional 16 percent.
An additional factor that may influence confidence levels in coalition-
building is the nature of the organizations with which we interact. Of the
forty-one groups with which the ALA's Young Adult Services Division
and Association for Library Service to Children have established contact,
37 percent represent human services professions that include interpersonal
and organizational skills as part of their training. Not only do we lack the
skills we need to operate with full effectiveness in coalition-building, but
we also often interact with people who are extremely skilled in just those
Lack of training can be corrected. We can seek out training experi-
ences that will enrich our library education. We can work with local, state,
regional, and national groups that support continuing education. We can
encourage library schools to offer courses that respond to our needs for
behavioral as well as cognitive knowledge.
The second factor that may influence effectiveness as coalition-
builders is not a matter of training but of inclination. Comments included
in the survey responses suggested a number of reasons why coalition-
building was less than successful. However I know that I have used some or
all of those reasons to justify not doing things I didn't want to do, and I
have managed to do things I really felt were important despite some or
occasionally all the factors mentioned by survey respondents. In that
typical hectic day described earlier, I made choices to respond to adminis-
trative deadlines, to take time to talk with kids, and to open mail. I chose to
accept my floorwork schedule as nonnegotiable. I made these decisions and
by doing so did not respond to other possibilities including two that would
have directly supported coalition-building. Something in me resisted mak-
ing those actions top priority. It might well have been an almost subcon-
scious response to system goals, but it also might have been personal
Personal preference yours and mine can and does enter into our
decision-making processes. It is vital that we know ourselves well enough
to detect this influence. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a tool that can
be helpful in just this area. Based on Jung's theory of psychological types,
it measures perception and judgment the way we look at things and the
way we go about making decisions based on what is perceived. It is, of
course, only an indication of tendencies. However, we usually develop
more skill with those processes we prefer. We may have a preference for
using the right or left hand, but we can and do use either or both when
needed. The four areas of preference measured in the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator, then, are:
1 . perception directed toward the outer world of people and things (called
Extraversion or E) or toward the inner world of theories and ideas
(Introversion or /);
2. perception based on known facts and the directly observable (called
Sensing or S) or on possibilities and relationships (Intuition or N);
3. judgment based on analysis and logic (called Thinking or T) or on
personal values (Feeling or F);
4. judgment in a planned, orderly way (called Judging or /) or in a
flexible, spontaneous way (Perceptive or P) (Myers 8c McCaulley, 1985,
pp. 1-5, 11-29).
48 Managers and Missionaries
While all these factors certainly influence how we approach coalition-
building, the first, which considers our preference for perceiving through
interaction with people and things rather than through theories and ideas,
seems most significant in determining any personal resistance we may
have. Myers-Briggs surveyed hundreds of people in a variety of careers and,
based on 267 librarians, found a marked preference for introversion more
than 60 percent (Myers & McCaulley, 1985, pp. 244-92). However, since I
have heard many of my colleagues express on more than one occasion that
youth services specialists may well be more people-oriented than librarians
as a whole, I decided to explore this further.
Twelve youth services specialists at Spokane Public Library agreed to
take the Myers-Briggs instrument and share the results. Each of us reacted
differently to the experience. Most were curious and gained appreciation
for ourselves and our colleagues through the process. For some the expe-
rience was a real revelation personally as well as professionally. Comments
ranged from: "No wonder I get so tired on school visit days!" to "I can't
believe it! I finally know why I'm different from the people around me.
And it's not because there is something wrong with me!" Now we often
describe our actions in terms of the results, as in "Get Marshall to explain
this. You're sounding too W for me." We are coming to cherish differences
and to capitalize on them.
However, in combination, a clear and somewhat frightening picture
emerged. Of the twelve specialists who took the instrument, 75 percent
scored in the / range, 75 percent in the N range, and 75 percent in the F
range with an equal division between P and /. At Spokane Public Library,
according to the Myers-Briggs results, youth services staff is more con-
cerned with .possibilities and relationships than with facts. We base deci-
sions more on personal values than on impersonal analysis and logic. We
feel more comfortable in the inner world of theories and ideas than in the
outer world of people and things, even more so than librarians in general.
No wonder we have such difficulty in coalition-building. Activities based
on interaction and dependent on active pursual of contacts are not our
preferred styles. Myers-Briggs characterizes the / personality by predicting
that such people would find work .with theories and ideas energizing and
work with people and things enervating. However, this insight allows us
to do something about it. We can consciously put more energy into those
activities we know are not typical of our preferred style. We can acknowl-
edge and turn to those that operate from different styles for strength and
support. We can seek out training opportunities that build skills and
increase confidence in areas that are not our most preferred. We can
continue to explore our own interests, values, and skills so that we will be
as aware as possible of the factors that influence our work.
In summary, coalition-building has been a long-standing tradition in
library service to youth. It is included as a priority in virtually every set of
state and national guidelines. Calls for action are frequent in national
forums. Yet our perceptions of success in this area are surprisingly low.
Two factors that might affect this have been examined: lack of training in
interpersonal and organizational skills; and personality qualities of indi-
vidual librarians that resist proactive, people-based activities. Yet neither
of these factors is insurmountable. Instead, I recommend that as individu-
als and as a profession we:
seek out training experiences in interpersonal and organizational skills
to supplement library school education;
actively work for continuing education experiences at the local, state,
and national levels that enhance these skills;
work for more responsive library school curricula;
reconsider recruitment of library school students;
encourage library systems to provide for human resource development
training and support; and
accept the challenge of self-knowledge and learn to value the differences
in attitudes, values, and skills of our colleagues.
More research is necessary in both issues discussed in this presenta-
tion. My inquiries were limited and basic, but the tendencies uncovered
have significance for current and projected training and exploration. Who
we are as real or potential coalition-builders is not solely determined by
who we claim to be in policies and guidelines. We are also formed by our
training and by our own natures. In Spokane we have begun to learn more
about who we are and how we act and interact in order to increase our
effectiveness at work. We have made a commitment to continue this
exploration. However we must all commit as individuals and as a profes-
sion to honest consideration of how differences in skills and personalities
impact our actions. When this happens, I predict the next survey that
comes our way will be marked: "We are doing all we should."
50 Managers and Missionaries
Summary of a 1986 Survey of Youth Services Managers
August 18, 1986
In preparing a presentation for the upcoming Allerton Institute I am looking into youth
services managers' attitudes toward delivery of service. This is nothing scientific at this point.
I am curious only about general trends that might exist. Please take a minute to mark the
following scales and send me your responses by August 31. A self-addressed envelope
is enclosed for your use. Remember I'm looking for your impressions as to how well your
system is doing. All responses will be kept confidential. THANK YOU FOR YOUR
Spokane Public Library
1. Our system gives collection development for youth
745% 3% 729% 10% 13% 7
high medium low
2. Our system gives reader's guidance/reference to youth
7 25% 19% 7 28% 9% 19% 7
3. Our system gives in-house programming to youth
7 21% 6% 7 17% 6% 50% 7
4. Our system gives coalition-building with other youth-serving agencies
13% 723% 10% 32% 7
5. Our system gives outreach to youth (booktalks, school visits, etc.)
726% 13% 7 16% 3% 42% 7
6. In the area of COALITION-BUILDING,
7 16% 16% 726% 0% 42% 7
We are doing so-so We aren't doing
all we should. much of anything.
1. In the area of COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT,
735% 29% 7 19% 3% 13% 7
8. In the area of IN-HOUSE PROGRAMMING,
719% 19% 716% 10% 35% 7
9. In the area of OUTREACH,
710% 23% 723%
10. In the area of REFERENCE/READER'S GUIDANCE,
7 25% 19% 7 34%
50 surveys sent to 25 different states
31 responses from 21 different states
52 Managers and Missionaries
Braverman, M. (1979). Youth, society, and the public library. Chicago: ALA.
Illinois Library Association, Children's Librarians' Section, Ad Hoc Committee on Stan-
dards for Children's Library Service. (1978). Guidelines for public library service to
children. Pamphlet, Illinois Library Association, Springfield.
Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H. (1985). Manual, a guide to the development and use of the
Myers-Briggs type indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Nebraska Library Commission. (1984). Guidelines for young people's library service in
Nebraska. Pamphlet (draft), Nebraska Library Commission, Lincoln.
New York Library Association, Youth Services Section. Task Force on Standards for Youth
Services. (1984). Standards for youth services in public libraries of New York State.
Pamphlet, New York Library Association, New York.
Ohio Library Association, Children's Services in Libraries and School Media Centers Divi-
sion. (1984). A guideline to planning public library service to children in Ohio. Pam-
phlet, Ohio Library Association, Columbus.
Public Library Association, Committee on Standards for Work with Young Adults. (1960).
Young adult services in the public library. Pamphlet, American Library Association,
Public Library Association, Subcommittee on Standards for Children's Services. (1964).
Standards for children's services in public libraries. Pamphlet, American Library Associa-
Vermont Department of Libraries, Task Force on Children's Services. (1979). Recommenda-
tions for public library service to children in Vermont. Pamphlet, Vermont Department
of Libraries, Montpelier.
Washington Library Association, Children's and Young Adult Services, Steering Committee
for State Guidelines of Youth Services in Public Libraries of Washington State. (1986).
Survey of children's and young adult services. Survey, Washington Library Association,
Wilson, E. (1983). The librarian in the youth services network: Nationally and locally. In E.
V. LiBretto (Ed.), New Directions for young adult services (pp. 103-15). New York: R. R.
Notes on Coalitions
Allen, P. R. (1983). Toward meeting the information needs of young people in New York
City. In E. V. LiBretto (Ed.), New directions for young adult services (pp. 1 17-28). New
York: R. R. Bowker.
Blake, F. M., etal. (1985, July). Forging coalitions for the pub lie good. Paper presented at the
American Library Association President's Program, Chicago.
Henington, D. M. (1986). Cooperation in serving students. In A. Ladenson (Ed.), The urban
public library makes connections for better service (pp. 17-25). Chicago: Urban Libraries
Howard, E. N. (1978). Local power and the community library. Public Library Reporter, 18.
Miller, S. M. (1983, Fall). Coalition etiquette: Ground rules for building coalitions. Social
Policy, p. 19.
Rosenzweig, S. (1986). Libraries and liaisons: Expanding the network. TopoftheNews42(4),
Sullivan, P. A. (1979). Library cooperation to serve youth. In J. V. Rogers (Ed.), Libraries and
young adults (pp. 113-18). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
Notes on Interpersonal
and Organizational Exploration
Forydyce, J. K., & Weil, R. (1979). Managing with people: A manager's handbook of organiza-
tion development methods. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Hampden-Turner, C. (1982). Maps of the mind. New York: Macmillan.
Johnston, D. W., and Johnson, F. P. (1975). Joining together: Group therapy and group
skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Miller, S., et al. (1981). Straight talk: A new way to get closer to others by saying what you
really mean. New York: Rawson, Wade Publishing, Inc.
Powell, J. W., & LeLieuvre, R. B. (1979). Peoplework. Communications dynamics for librar-
ians. Chicago: American Library Association.
FRANCES M. McDONALD
Library Media Education
Mankato State University
Access to Information: Professional
Responsibility and Personal Response
The library community devotes much attention to outsiders who attempt
to impose their views on the collection development process. The library
community expects that insiders will rally and, with profound indigna-
tion, resist efforts by outsiders to censor library resources. Actual happen-
ings illustrate that this does not always occur. In fact, well-publicized
challenges seem to result in restrictive practices by some librarians.
A school librarian declares that she will not purchase a Judy Blume
book because Blume's books cause too much trouble (Hentoff, 1983, p. vii).
A secondary school librarian states that "we are somewhat selective in our
choice of library resources" (McDonald, 1983, p. 10). A public librarian,
after a successful young adult Dungeons and Dragons program, vows not
to repeat the program because of isolated community reaction.
There is no indignation at these events, just understanding. There is
no outcry, just a recognition that the librarian was acting to survive and
that it could easily have been any librarian. The rationale for these actions
explains the difference between the motivations of the outsiders and the
motivations of the librarians. They say: "I disapprove of the ideas in this
book." Librarians say, "the book has no literary merit," or "my budget has
been cut and I can't buy everything." The outsiders mean that they fear the
ideas in the book. Librarians mean that they fear the results to themselves,
and they fear the outsiders.
While virtually all of the voluminous writing on censorship focuses
on the actions of outsiders, much of the actual censorship is done by
librarians. Quietly, under the guise of selection, spurred by rumors of
controversy, or the tainting of an author because of continuous efforts to
remove her books, a librarian removes a book, creates a restricted shelf, or
neglects to buy a potentially controversial title.
These incidents are not publicized; they never reach the collective
consciousness. Librarians do not report their self-censorship to the press.
56 Managers and Missionaries
In effect, librarians erect more barriers to information in their day-to-day
activities than are imposed from the outside. Persons in the library com-
munity need to examine their reasoning and beliefs and face the fact that
the most serious threat to access to information comes not from those
outside but, in fact, results from the fears, values, and actions of librarians.
The library community has known that librarians have censored
materials since the fifties and sixties when Fiske (1959) and Farley (1964)
reported their research. During the 1970s, Busha (1972) affirmed earlier
findings and added significant information about the characteristics of
librarians who exhibit censorious inclinations. Pope (1974) and Woods
and Salvatore (1981 ) provided more evidence that librarians are not purists
in defending intellectual freedom. Recently, Hopkins (1984, pp. 9-22)
reported a trend toward more self-censorship by librarians. The for-
merly secret plague of librarians self-censorship, safe selection, restricted
circulation is out of the closet.
Hopkins (1984) asked: "How widespread is precensorship by library
media specialists and what can the profession do about it at whatever level"
(p. 18)? This presentation represents one person's answer to that question.
It is time for the profession of librarianship to stop focusing on challenges
to resources and begin to examine why knowledge of intellectual freedom,
as expressed in the Library Bill of Rights and the Interpretations, is not
enough to ensure that librarians will uphold freedom-to-read principles.
Why do librarians who subscribe to a Code of Ethics (American Library
Association, 1985-1986, p. 226), violate its principles? Why do librarians
who know the value of selection policies and procedures, fail to follow
them? The library profession must examine why librarians are able to
articulate the values of the profession and yet act contrary to those values. Is
it the preparation programs? Is it personal characteristics, levels of adult
development, or the cognitive development of librarians? Is it a combina-
tion of factors?
The commitment to the public's right to read must go beyond the verbalization
stage where many librarians readily give lip service to the library user's right to
inquiry. A true commitment to freedom of access to books and information should
progress from the realm of abstract conceptualization to functional operation in
the day-to-day activities of the librarian, especially when a library is confronted
with censorship pressures. (Busha, 1972, p. 4)
Based on observations of current professional practice and the limited
research available, it is possible to speculate about what factors affect the
inclination of librarians to act in a manner consistent with principles of
freedom to read. Three personal components appear to influence reactions
to censorship pressures: first, personal characteristics of the librarian;
second, level of commitment to a professional ethic; and third, the profes-
sional preparation of the librarian. Three external components appear to
Access to Information 57
shape the personal components: first the milieu in which the librarian
works institutional expectations, the authority and management style of
supervisors, and the characteristics and professional commitment of
coworkers; second, actual community response to access to information,
including press reactions to First Amendment freedoms for children and
young adults; and third, perceptions of community values and likely
tolerance of intellectual freedom. This presentation focuses on the per-
Librarians talk about censorship as something being done to them.
They identify the censor as the irate parent who calls the principal, or stops
at the office of the head librarian, or contacts the library trustee. However,
definitions of censorship make it clear that government authorities or their
agents are the censors, not parents or other citizens. In spite of Fiske's
(1959), Farley's (1964), and Busha's (1972) findings, librarians refuse to
accept the term for themselves. Librarians compromise, librarians hold
procensorship attitudes, and librarians censor. Yet librarians profess belief
in the intellectual freedom principles in the Library Bill of Rights.
Downs (1984) speculated that perhaps there was something in the
psychological makeup or personality of librarians which led to their
differing approaches to the selection and restriction of library resources (p.
8). Discussing parental reactions to young adult books, but applicable in
the context of the librarian as censor, Broderick (1984) said "it is unclear
(because we have no real psychological research into the characteristics of
censors) whether the censors have never achieved the formal operations
stage in their cognitive development or do not understand the process that
must be gone through to achieve this level of thought" (p. 44). Fiske(1959)
concluded that school and public librarians do not feel strongly enough
"as individuals or as professionals to assert" intellectual freedom values in
the "face of public disapproval" (p. 1 10). Busha (1972) showed a correla-
tion between authoritarian beliefs and procensorship attitudes in public
librarians (p. 336). Farley (1964) found that more than half of the secondary
school librarians interviewed expressed "weak, wavering, uncertain, or
contradictory" (p. 122) attitudes toward library censorship and concluded
that "librarians censor books because of a pressure which they cannot
identify" (emphasis added) (p. 325).
It may be suggested by this research. . .that the school librarian who contemplates
the censoring of a book against his better judgment and because of "pressure" has
a professional obligation to take thought and to attempt to identify this pressure
to his own satisfaction, if indeed any real pressure actually exists, (p. 335)
Donelson (1981) said: "I have no idea how many people preach
58 Managers and Missionaries
freedom and education while stocking only those books that please the
community, placate the censor, ignore modern problems, eschew moral
issues, and therefore avoid controversies" (p. 12). The Office for Intellec-
tual Freedom (1983) described four factors which motivate the censor
family values, political views, religion, and minority rights and added
that no citizen and no librarian can properly assume the duty or right to
restrict or suppress legally protected expressions of ideas (pp. 173-74).
The library profession does not know the characteristics of a librarian
who firmly espouses and practices intellectual freedom principles. Also,
the profession does not know whether librarians, who successfully resist
efforts to restrict information, exhibit similar characteristics. The profes-
sion does not know what life stages or passages lead to the ability to
comprehend the concepts of intellectual freedom. It is not as simple as age
and experience. These qualities do not guarantee upholding the Library
Bill of Rights or only first- or second-year librarians would be practicing
self-censorship. We know that this is not the case.
The next component influencing the librarian's reaction to censor-
ship pressures is the librarian's level of commitment to a professional
ethic. Behavior in a challenge situation or a self-censorship situation
cannot be predicted from a librarian's verbal report of valuing an ethical
standard. People who travel around the country speaking to librarians
about intellectual freedom issues report instances of rapt audiences, nod-
ding in agreement at every intellectual freedom platitude uttered, with
apparent understanding and acceptance of the principles being
expounded. But, invariably, the first remarks following the presentation
illustrate that librarians are able to justify self-censorship by the unique
conditions in which they work. "Everything you say is right, but I live in a
conservative community (or state)," or, "my principal has said I must keep
the community in mind when I select." Nat Hentoff illustrates the point
with descriptions of the personal reactions of several librarians. Two
Minnesota librarians told Hentoff.they would not order Judy Blume books
because her books are "'too much trouble' to have in a library. "An Illinois
high school librarian, convinced that abortion is murder, will have no
books "that may. ..encourage students to commit murder." In Massachu-
setts, there will be no antiabortion books because a school official is
convinced that these books promote religion (Hentoff, 1983, p. vii).
Reading a Code of Ethics or the Library Bill of Rights does not tell the
librarian how to apply the principles contained in the documents. Decid-
ing what to do, while balancing conflicting claims and loyalties, marks the
application of a Code of Ethics. Fully subscribing to the Code of Ethics
Access to Information 59
means librarians need to be active in shaping the world in which they work
and not remain passive and be molded by it. If the people the librarian
works with do not understand freedom to read concepts, the librarian will
experience great difficulty in exercising ethical behavior. Confronted with
conditions in the workplace antithetical to intellectual freedom, the librar-
ian can work to change those conditions or reject the ethics of the profes-
sion and compromise. Rather than accepting the view of the principal, the
library trustee, or the vocal citizen, the librarian has a professional respon-
sibility to proselytize about the only issue on which there are no opposing
viewpoints. If librarians do not explain, exhort, and teach the importance
of the principles governing librarianship, who will do it?
Professional Preparation of Librarians
The third component which shapes the personal responses of librar-
ians is their professional preparation. No one disputes the fact that intel-
lectual freedom receives attention during library school. Students in
library media education courses spend considerable time studying the
principles of selection. Students learn to develop and apply criteria for the
selection of resources. Librarians are taught the importance of following
approved policies and procedures when resources are challenged. Freedom
of access to information is promoted as a professional value. However, in
spite of passing tests on principles of selection, writing drafts of selection
policies, and being able to apply valid criteria to the selection of resources,
librarians' professional practices do not always reflect what was learned.
Library educators appear to believe that if students are presented with a
Library Bill of Rights during their professional preparation, they will
have learned what it means and will transfer its principles to behavior at
the reference desk, the circulation desk, or when selecting resources.
Apparently library media educators expect that if cognitive objectives are
met, there will be a corresponding development of appropriate behavior.
The expectation is unfounded because self-censorship suggests that library
education has not been effective in teaching students to apply the Library
Bill of Rights in the workplace.
The Proposed Agenda
Solving the problem of the conflict between professional responsibil-
ity and personal reactions requires efforts on the part of the entire library
profession including library media educators, professional organizations,
and librarians themselves. A threefold agenda is being proposed: first, an
education which includes affective development as well as cognitive devel-
opment; second, a profession willing to work to foster community under-
standing of the First Amendment and the principles of freedom to read and
60 Managers and Missionaries
to create a climate of intellectual freedom among the persons with whom
the librarian works e.g., supervisors, teachers, administrators, library
trustees, and school board members; and third, a research agenda to iden-
tify the factors which contribute to the willingness or reluctance of librar-
ians to act on intellectual freedom principles.
Clearly, an entrance requirement that incoming students demonstrate
the right personal characteristics before admittance to library school is not
being suggested. Granted, the task would be easy if all students arrived
with an understanding of the First Amendment learned in eighth grade
civics class. They do not. The suspected amount of self-censorship indi-
cates that current teaching strategies have been unsuccessful in helping
librarians apply freedom to read principles. Library media educators must
examine current methods and revise them. Library school faculty must
develop learning strategies designed to help students learn to transfer the
principles of the First Amendment to professional library practice.
Educators are beginning to understand how to accomplish the type of
learning needed to prepare library media specialists who are willing to act
on their expressed beliefs. Educational psychologists tell us that there are
three domains in the learning environment cognitive, affective, and psy-
chomotor. Since the psychomotor domain deals with physical skills, it
does not apply here. The cognitive domain represents information i.e.,
knowing the norms of the group. The affective domain concentrates on
attitudes and values, which lead to behavior consistent with the norms of
the profession (Bloom, 1956; Krathwol et al., 1964). Both knowing and
valuing are essential to create First Amendment activists.
Library education, as most of education, emphasizes knowing, speci-
fically the lower levels of cognitive learning. But cognition goes beyond
knowing and comprehending, to what are commonly called higher order
thinking skills application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. It is these
higher thinking skills that will provide the librarian with the ability to
analyze actions, to consider the implications of actions, to weigh compet-
ing values, and to make judgments consistent with the values of the
profession. Educational activities designed to help students apply and
evaluate intellectual freedom principles in the context of professional
practice might help librarians transfer knowledge to the workplace. How-
ever, educating the mind and hoping that appropriate behavior will follow
is not enough.
Behavior has a cognitive component and an affective component.
Learning about intellectual freedom will only lead to action if the student
has an opportunity to participate in activities also emphasizing affective
Access to Information 61
learning. Affective learning begins with awareness, moves to attitudes and
valuing and, if effective, results in actions. Library education must not
merely focus on attitudes in the abstract but must present concrete situa-
tions, real and simulated, to help students examine how committed they
are to their expressed values and how their values must translate to behav-
ior. When actions do not reflect stated values, the librarian rationalizes in
terms of competing values in an attempt to explain the discrepancy.
Library students need to have an opportunity to analyze these competing
pressures and examine the implications of actions. While raising aware-
ness alone will not change attitudes or values, creating dissonance by
allowing students to experience the conflict between theory and practice
does contribute to a clarification of values and might prepare students to
respond to the pressures they will face. The cognitive and affective compo-
nents in a response to a censorship incident or an inclination to self-
censorship are illustrated in Table 1.
The message for library educators goes beyond what has been pro-
posed in curriculum reform. Library school faculty must also model
intellectual freedom behavior and activism. All facets of professional prep-
aration must be couched in the spirit of intellectual freedom. Selection
courses are not the only place where principles of intellectual freedom are
taught. Discussions in reference, administration, cataloging, and other
courses must illustrate practices that enhance or create barriers to access
information. A total library school curriculum, viewed as the forum for the
education of intellectual freedom activists, enhances the likelihood of
PROCESS OF RESPONSE TO INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM INCIDENT
Perceiving of a censorship situation
including recognition of how
actions might affect others.
Integrating of various considerations
in order to formulate what course of
action would best fulfill an ethical
Deciding, calculating, weighing, and
considering other values.
Implementing and executing a plan of
action, evaluating competence, and
Adapted from: Rest, J. R. ( 1984). The major components of morality. In W. M. Kurtines & J.
L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Morality, moral behavior, and moral development (pp. 24-38). New York:
62 Managers and Missionaries
Creating a Climate of Intellectual Freedom
Efforts of library school faculty will not accomplish all that is needed.
Librarians do not work in a vacuum. The institution in which they work
provides one key to whether librarians will act on their intellectual free-
dom beliefs. Many librarians find themselves working in hostile environ-
ments where avoiding controversy and compromise are the predominant
values. Creating an intellectual freedom climate under these circumstances
presents difficulties. The concepts of intellectual freedom must be trans-
lated to institutional values for teachers, administrators, and city and
county officials. Skills of persuasion will enable librarians to counter the
censoring efforts of coworkers, supervisors, and the community. Members
of governing boards need orientation to understand the importance of
protecting access to information. The library profession, through public
education, lobbying, and forming coalitions with other groups, needs to
participate in fostering a climate in which access to information will
flourish and individual librarians will feel secure in acting on their profes-
sional values and beliefs.
Professional organizations share the responsibility for promoting a
climate of intellectual freedom and for the continuing professional devel-
opment of their members. Programming that focuses on exchanging infor-
mation about the evils the censors are doing will not accomplish the task.
In fact, librarians might be frightened into increased self-censorship with
this information. Programming at professional meetings must focus on
the attitudes and behavior of librarians. Exercises like the ones provided by
YASD (Young Adult Services Division) and AASL (American Association
of School Libraries) force librarians to examine their practices in the light
of association policy. This consciousness raising might cause some librar-
ians to reexamine their commitment to intellectual freedom (American
Library Association, 1982; American Library Association, 1986). Programs
featuring case histories demonstrate how censorship pressures can be re-
sisted and provide encouragement to wavering and uncertain librarians.
Professional organizations contribute to the continuing education of their
members by providing opportunities to acquire and sharpen skills. Librar-
ians do not need to hear about numbers and the titles that have been cen-
sored, but they do need to practice skills and see examples of successful
resistance to censorship efforts.
Current research only hints at factors contributing to the discrepancy
Access to Information 63
between professional beliefs and professional practices. The library profes-
sion needs to examine studies that have been completed and verify or reject
the findings. Do the personal characteristics of individual librarians deter-
mine their responses to censorship pressures? Is it authoritarian beliefs as
Busha hinted? Is it lack of commitment to a professional ethic as Fiske
charged? Is it a personal belief system as Hentoff illustrated? Is it some-
thing in the personality or psychological makeup of librarians as Downs
speculated? Is it personal values as Krug intimated? Or, is it lack of
cognitive development as Broderick suggested? Or is it none of these factors
but some as yet unknown variable? Ignoring the hints will not solve the
problem, but continued investigation might. Research could provide a
scientific base for curriculum revision, for continuing education activities,
and for a professional plan to eliminate the self-censorship that seems so
The task is formidable, but supporters of the First Amendment number in
the millions. The library profession must identify its allies, enlist their aid,
and launch a massive intellectual freedom effort. This effort could provide
librarians with a sense of community as well as professional support
thereby encouraging integrity in selection and access decisions. Further,
librarians must assume personal responsibility for their professional prac-
tices. They must stop using real or assumed outside pressures to excuse or
to avoid facing their violations of professional ethics. Librarians must
consciously examine the values that lead to restrictive library practices.
Through library media education, continuing education, and program-
ming at professional meetings, it is possible to create generations of
intellectual freedom missionaries courageous enough to act on the belief
system they all profess. Only this will ensure information access for chil-
dren and young adults.
American Library Association. (1985-1986). On professional ethics. In ALA Policy Manual
(p. 226). Chicago, IL: ALA.
American Library Association. American Association of School Librarians. (1986). Intellec-
tual freedom and censorship: Do school practices reflect association policy? Unpublished
questionnaire, American Library Association, American Association of School Librar-
American Library Association. Office for Intellectual Freedom. (1983). Intellectual freedom
manual. Chicago, IL: ALA.
American Library Association. Young Adult Services Division. (1982). Does your library
violate the library bill of rights. ..and not know it? Unpublished questionnaire, American
Library Association, Young Adult Services Division, Chicago.
64 Managers and Missionaries
Bloom, B., et al. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: David McKay.
Broderick, D. M. (1983). Adolescent development and censorship. In School library media
annual (Vol. 1, p. 6). Littleton, CO.
Busha, C. H. (1972). Freedom versus suppression and censorship: With a study of the atti-
tudes of midwestern public librarians and a bibliography of censorship. Littleton, CO:
Donelson, K. L. Shoddy and pernicious books and youthful purity: Literacy and moral cen-
sorship, then and now. Library Quarterly, 51, 12.
Downs, R. B. (1984). The first freedom today: Critical issues relating to censorship and intel-
lectual freedom. Chicago, IL: ALA.
Farley, J. J. (1964). Book censorship in the senior high school libraries of Nassau County,
New York. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.
Fiske, M. (1959). Book selection and censorship: A study of school and public libraries in Cali-
fornia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hentoff, N. (1983). Foreword. In H. Bosmajian (Ed.), Censorship, libraries, and the law.
New York: Neal-Schuman.
Hopkins, D. M. (1984). Censorship of school library media materials and its implications,
1982-1983. In S. Aaron & P. R. Scales (Eds.), School library media annual 1984 (Vol. 2, pp.
9-22). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Krathwol, D. R., etal. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: David McKay.
McDonald, F. (1983). A report of a survey on censorship in public elementary and high school
libraries and public libraries in Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: Civil Liberties Union.
Pope, M. (1974). Sex and the undecided librarian: A study of librarian's opinions on sexually
oriented literature. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Rest, J. R. (1984). The major components of morality. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz
(Eds.), Morality, moral behavior, and moral development (pp. 24-28). New York: John
Woods, L. B., & Salvatore, L. (Winter, 1981). Self-censorship in collection development by
high school library media specialists. School Media Quarterly 9, 102-108.
Center for Early Adolescence
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Part I: Funding for Youth Services
How to Do It and Where to Find It
No one ever said that part of the job of a young adult librarian would be
fund-raising. I took all the courses needed to best serve young people but
mention was never made in any course, by any teacher, of how one goes
about getting funding for programs and materials that are not included in
the regular library budget. Nor did anyone ever suggest that, in fact, that is
part of a librarian's job. Evidently no one predicted that it would be
necessary. So why is it a special issues session at this institute?
It seems that most children's and young adult librarians had an
experience similar to mine. One children's coordinator reported that the
branch children's librarians do not think about fund-raising for special
projects they do not come to her with requests, do not see it as one of their
jobs, and are afraid to ask for money. After all, the library is a public
institution supported by tax dollars, how can they ask for more money?
And they are so timid about asking for money, that when they do ask, it is
for minimal amounts.
Yet in this age of tight funding and increased competition for what is
available from government sources as well as from foundations and
individuals we must be competitive in order to get enough of the share of
the pie to carry out the services necessary to fulfill the mission of young
adult librarian. If we don't, we will be reduced to providing minimum
services with inadequate resources. And if we are willing to settle for that,
what will that do for the entire field of children's and young adult librar-
ianship, and ultimately to the young people we serve?
This discussion will begin with a review of the fundamentals of
grantsmanship, and you will find that these are basic tasks that need to be
accomplished to promote children's or young adult library service under
any circumstances. This will be followed by suggestions for how to get a
bigger piece of the existing budget; how to obtain funding from corpora-
tions, foundations, individuals, and other sources; and what kinds of
66 Managers and Missionaries
nonmonetary contributions should be considered. Applying for LSCA
monies will be discussed in part II. This will not be a "how to write a
proposal" approach. Not that it isn't important to know such techniques,
but there are many excellent resources available to help with the nuts and
bolts of the process. The focus here will be on the broader issues and will be
touching on the very basic question of what does a children's or young
adult librarian do, or rather, what should he or she be doing?
Preparation for this presentation included interviews with direct ser-
vices librarians, age-level coordinators, and state library directors in small,
medium, and large library systems. I talked to people for whom getting
money was a major part of their jobs and to others who did it on their own.
The people interviewed are very successful at getting contributions, both
monetary and in-kind. They were asked how they do it? What is the
bureaucracy involved? What advice would they offer for successful fund-
raising, and what they would like to hear at a conference like this. They
were also asked to share their successes and failures. Their answers, and
what was found in the literature frame my discussion.
There is no question that fund-raising has not traditionally been
considered part of the job. A literature and database search yielded very few
books and articles that were specifically addressed to librarians. There are
scores of publications on fund-raising, marketing, and public relations in
general, but in the few that do address librarians, almost nothing is said
about school librarians. There is some promising news on the horizon. A
new periodical, The Bottom Line: A Financial Magazine for Librarians is
now available, and a new book from Greenwood Press, Grant Proposal
Writing: A Handbook for School Library Media Specialists, has recently
been published. The ALSC Grants Committee is also compiling a list of
national foundations that can be tapped for funds.
For survival's sake, children's and young adult librarians must take a
broader view of their profession. They must add to their job descriptions
fund-raising, marketing, and public relations. The following "laundry
list" of basics offers nothing that is earthshakingly new but they are
included here because they are essential for success in getting support. The
list includes doing your homework, knowing the research, having an
evaluation component, being politically savvy, marketing services, doing
public relations, knowing the organizational structure of the library or
school, knowing the institutional mission, and having clear goals and
Doing your homework is very important. An analysis of the commun-
ity that is served by the library is fundamental in order to ascertain its
needs. This includes the statistical data e.g., total population of the
community; the number of children and young adults; projected growth or
decline of the age group served; ethnic composition; educational levels of
Part I: Funding for Youth Services 67
the population; school enrollment; and economic factors such as income,
occupations, etc. Add information about social and service organizations
in the community, the transportation system, communications network,
political makeup, and other available information sources. Information
can be gleaned from other quarters one might not ordinarily think of such
as the police, the Chamber of Commerce, bartenders, crossing guards,
church records, immigration records, mailmen, retired people, Welcome
Wagon, voter registration, youth clubs, and undertakers. It is necessary to
know how many working parents there are in both single and dual-career
families. Knowing the community is essential for fund-raising, and it is
even more crucial for determining the services that will meet the needs of
the population served.
Doing your homework also includes knowing how your institution
works. Who should be approached when you want additional materials or
money to do a new program, and what is the procedure? In a very small
system this may be very informal, consisting of an oral request of the
director. In larger systems there is likely to be a more formal procedure that
would involve moving up the hierarchy beginning with a request to the
branch head, then to a coordinator or age- level consultant, and then to the de-
puty director where the ultimate decision is made. If the request is for a sub-
stantial amount, a final step might be approved by the board of trustees. Every
system has its own procedure and knowing what the procedure is, is essential.
Before you even think about approaching anyone with a request, have
a clear idea of what you want the money for. Can a need be demonstrated
and documented for this program or service? Will it address a problem in
the community? Are goals clear? Can you demonstrate that the project has
validity and appeal? Is it compatible with the mission of the larger institu-
tion? Has every item been costed out including staff time, postage, mate-
rials, duplicating, and so forth?
Being aware of any research that will support a request will help
enormously. For example, if additional money is needed for a summer
reading program, citing Barbara Heyns's study on the positive effects of
summer learning on school achievement is certain to strengthen your
position. Heyns (1978) states: "The single summer activity that is most
strongly and consistently related to summer learning is reading" (p. 161).
She goes on to argue that the one institution that directly influences
children's reading is the public library (p. 161). This cannot fail to be
persuasive given current concern about literacy levels and school dropouts.
If you have been successful in funding this project before and you
want to repeat or continue it, offering proof of its success will be critical.
Make sure an evaluation component is built into every program or service
provided. Document what you have done and use the data collected to
justify the request.
68 Managers and Missionaries
Know how to market your services, do public relations, sharpen
networking skills, and be politically knowledgeable about the community.
These are the "final four" for successful fund-raising. They are probably
obvious but are not always tended to. Make sure that people know what
you are doing both within the library or school system and out in the
community. Good public relations and marketing not only attract chil-
dren and young adults to your program, but also enhance the chances that
bond issues and referenda will be approved by the voting public and
increase the likelihood that special projects will be funded. Networking
and being politically savvy fall under the category of "people skills."
Know the people who serve on the school board, the library board, bank
officers, and Friends of the Library. Become a member of the Chamber of
Commerce, the local United Way, or any other organization that involves
important people in the community. For school librarians, cultivate your
staff, principal, and PTA. Make sure it is known what the other youth-
serving agencies in the community are doing and who the people are who
work in them. This quotation sums up the importance of people skills.
" 'You will not raise a dime until you raise a friend' " (Waters, 1986, p. 37).
To all of this add a dose of creativity and initiative and you are ready to
continue the process. All of this is a tall order. Be reassured, however, that
none of the earlier mentioned can be accomplished quickly or easily.
Fund-raising takes time, patience, and perseverance, and it is hard work.
The art of cultivating people is just that an art (as is fund-raising) that
cannot be created instantaneously. And although it could be argued that
all of us need to be tending to these basic tasks as professionals, not every
school media specialist, children's or young adult librarian is cut out to be
a fund-raiser. As the manager of children's services for the Louisville
Public Library pointed out: "Fundraising is difficult. Not everyone is good
at it" (Somerville, personal communication, October 24, 1986). If you are
interested in fund-raising but feel that you do not know enough to do it,
there are many workshops available that teach fund-raising techniques.
These 'range from one day to five days in length and represent a fairly
modest investment considering the return. Alternatives to finding the
money yourself are turning to the grants coordinator in your system if
you are lucky enough to have one or asking for help from a staff member
who has been successful at fund-raising.
Combining fund-raising efforts with those for other services is also a
possibility. The Louisville Public Library received an H. W. Wilson award
to improve relations with patrons. Included in their application was
improving relations with child and young adult patrons. By the way, it is
probably easier to get funding for children's services than anything else.
According to Barb Fierro, former executive director of Girls Club of Rapid
City, South Dakota: "Children's needs tug at everyone's heart strings"
Part I: Funding for Youth Services 69
(Fierro, personal communication, October 27, 1986). These are the basic
principles underlying successful fund-raising, and successful
The discussion will now move to the types of funding that are avail-
able to librarians, beginning closest to home and ending with a discussion
in Part II of federal grants.
Examine first the opportunities within your system for either getting a
bigger piece of the budget pie, or finding funding outside the regular
budget. Whether you work in a small or large system, be familiar with the
budget process i.e., the size of the budget and how it is allocated. The
process for requesting a larger share will vary from system to system. In the
New York Public Library, for example, the materials budget is based on
level of circulation and how well the money was spent in the prior budget
period. Careful documentation and data collection might enable a direct
services librarian to increase his or her share of funds. In addition, the New
York Public Library has special funds in the young adult and children's
budget. Very active age-level specialists in the borough of Queens see to it
that their librarians get some of these funds to promote special services and
programs. In this situation, the age-level specialists depend on the direct
services librarian to approach them with project plans.
According to Barbara Elleman (1986), editor of children's books
for Booklist, for school libraries, "[t]he principal is the link to the
purse strings." She gives helpful advice to school principals in an issue of
Here's How on how to vitalize the school library. School librarians can
turn her advice to their own advantage.
Other sources are available within one's system e.g., Friends of the
Library, the PTA, and patrons themselves. In 1985, $28 million was raised
by Friends groups across the country (Margolis, 1 986, p. 7 ). One group held
a Thanksgiving pie sale and raised enough money to buy new furniture,
toys, and VCRs and to offer community cooking classes. Book sales run by
Friends' groups and PTAs can raise thousands of dollars for a library.
Want a piece of that pie? Know how the money is allocated, and know the
people who have decision-making power. And last, but certainly not least,
tap the young people in your system.
In the Virginia Beach Public Library, teenagers raised money for the
programs they wanted. What a great way to involve the community and
publicize services while at the same time giving young people an oppor-
tunity for meaningful participation in the community.
After you have exhausted all the possibilities of getting money from
within your institution and you still need funds, where do you turn next?
The next step should be local sources of funding.
These include local businesses and merchants, local foundations and
corporations, your local United Way, and individuals. When approaching
70 Managers and Missionaries
local businesses and corporations, the key to remember is that "people give
because they 'get something' out of giving" (Brakely, 1986, p. 26). The
"something" they get need not be tangible. They may get a good feeling
from giving, they may give to feel wanted and appreciated, or because they
believe in the cause. Guilt may be the motivating factor, or a desire for
power and influence. And don't overlook the part peer pressure plays, or
the competitive spirit. What you must do is correctly assess the person you
are approaching. Is he or she the type that is big-hearted, a soft touch for
helping kids? Is he or she the type who will respond to the plight of one
child or would a global approach be better. An example of the latter is: "If
this isn't funded, 20,000 children in this community will not have a
summer reading program" (Somerville, personal communication,
October 26, 1986). Some will only be interested in what the grant will do
for their business and want only the publicity. The request must be tailored
to the needs of the individual donor.
Corporations give for a wide range of reasons. Some prefer to fund
only those projects that will benefit their employees, some have a real sense
of social responsibility and will fund projects that will benefit the com-
munity as a whole. Knowing why a corporation gives is part of the
homework that must be done before initiating a request. Getting this
information includes researching the corporation and using your people
skills. You must pitch a request to what the corporation is interested in.
Richard Waters (1985) sums it up in this way: "We must match up the
donor's needs with our needs. Hear me! I did not say match up our needs
with the donor's" (p. 36).
Sometimes a donor will come to the library with a project yes,
Virginia, there is a Santa Glaus. In Rhode Island, Old Stone Bank
approached the state library. It wanted to fund a project that would focus
on historical characters. The first year the bank gave $60,000 to fund a
children's theater group that performed in branch libraries. The works
performed were based on characters from historical books; and part of the
funding went for the purchase of copies of the books for each branch. In the
second year the grant was increased to $150,000. For the 350th anniversary
of Rhode Island, the bank wanted to fund a project along the same lines as
year one but using characters from Rhode Island history. There were no
books available, so the bank commissioned two authors to write a book
the bank paid for its publication. The theater group will do performances
based on the characters.
And how do you show appreciation for the contributions so that the
next time you ask for money the donor will be favorably disposed to grant
the request? When a local toy store funded one librarian's film program,
she had bookmarks printed up that said: "Wayne's Toytown Cares About
Kids." These were distributed at the library and at the toy store. All
Part I: Funding for Youth Services 71
publicity in newspapers and the media repeated this slogan. As a follow-up
and thank you for a summer reading program that was funded by two local
companies, Mary Somerville prepared scrapbooks for each donor that
included publicity clippings and thank you notes written by the children
so that the donors would know what their contributions accomplished and
with the hope that they would fund the project again next summer.
Consider cooperating with another community agency to get funding
for a joint project. Some likely agencies would be boys and girls clubs, the
local Y, parks and recreation departments, etc.
Do not underestimate the potential funds that can be raised from
individuals. Of the total charitable dollars given by the private sector in
1984, 84 percent came from individual donors, while only 10 percent came
from foundations and corporations (Klein, 1985). There are unlimited
ways to raise money from individuals limited only by your imagination.
These can be a lot of fun. Some good ideas come from Barb Fierro. In Rapid
City, population 40,000, $70,000 was raised in a "Pennies for Kids" cam-
paign. Jars for pennies were placed all over the city. Student Councils
pushed it, there were public service announcements, and newspaper pub-
licity. Volunteers counted and wrapped the pennies. "Tip Me Big" was
another successful fund-raiser, although on a much smaller scale. A restau-
rant was asked to participate. Local celebrities e.g., senators, the mayor,
etc. served as waitpersons. People made reservations to eat and all the tips
earned by the celebrities were donated to the project amount raised,
$5,000. My all-time favorite though is the "Kids for Kids" campaign which
was to fund Head Start. A baby goat was delivered to a person at their place
of employment. In order to get rid of the goat they had to contribute! 10 to
Sometimes an idea doesn't work. One that was not successful was
Mary Somerville's idea to auction off an Arabian horse to help raise money
for a local radio station. This didn't work because the bottom fell out of the
Arabian horse market as a result of tax law changes.
The next important source of funds are state and national founda-
tions. Applying involves more work and time because, usually, an exten-
sive written proposal is required. Keep in mind all of the basics discussed
earlier. Preparation will have a new component i.e., researching the
foundations to approach for funding. The best place to start is with the
Foundation Center. The Foundation Center is a national source of infor-
mation on philanthropic giving. Using its publications and its nation-
wide network of library reference collections, you will be able to identify
foundation programs that correspond to your needs. Choose the founda-
tions carefully. Make sure there is a match between your project and
the interests of the foundation. In his book, Grant Money and How to
Get It, Richard Boss (1980) has included an appendix which lists
72 Managers and Missionaries
private foundations with a stated interest in libraries or some history of
making grants to libraries (pp. 92-113). Sometimes libraries are not speci-
fically listed as an area of interest of foundations. If this is the case, look for
subjects that might cover libraries such as cultural projects or education.
The last source of contributions to mention before the presentation by
Ruth Faklis's presentation on LSCA funding is of the "in-kind" variety.
Falling into this category are volunteers, cooperative ventures, donations
of such things as food, audiovisual materials, computers, furniture, print-
ing and duplicating, gifts to the library, and the like. Gifts can be more
trouble than they are worth. But, trust me, there can be gold in "them thar
gifts." One Texas library received a gift of a collection of valuable Navajo
rugs. These were prominently displayed and graciously acknowledged.
The pleased donor might be a future source of contributions.
Volunteers can also be a mixed blessing. Careful selection and train-
ing of volunteers can be a substantial source of help and be worth the staff
time involved in recruiting and training. The keys here are recruitment,
adequate training, a show of appreciation, getting feedback, and evaluat-
ing results. Pasadena has a great system for recruiting volunteers for all
government agencies. There is an office that screens the volunteers before
the names are turned over to the agencies. Requests for volunteers are
included in the community's electric bills. This way, every person in the
community knows if, for example, the library needs volunteers. Consider
tapping civic groups, senior citizens, and local businesses. And please do
not overlook using teenagers as volunteers. Some companies encourage
their employees to volunteer in the community and will provide release
time for this purpose. One problem in the P.S. column in Bottom Line is
"How can I figure out how much our current volunteer program costs the
library" (Cassell, 1986, p. 52)? The solution is to cost out the staff time
involved in writing a job description, recruiting and interviewing prospec-
tive volunteers, training, and supervision. This is useful information to
have. It will determine whether enlisting volunteers is a worthwhile activ-
ity in your library.
Broaden your idea of who should serve as volunteers. The Seattle
Public Library planned a showing of the film Fame (Van Wyk, 1985) to be
followed by a panel discussion by local artists all at no cost. The artists
were delighted to contribute their time, and the program was a great
In small communities, particularly rural communities, there is a
strong history of citizen participation and volunteerism. People are often
willing to contribute their time and talents for special projects. Tailoring
your need to their talent can have gratifying results. For more ideas, see the
October issue of American Libraries (McCormick, 1986) and Irene Martin's
(1984) article in Rural Libraries.
Part I: Funding for Youth Services 73
The best sources of tangible products are those businesses that sell the
products or services you need. Try McDonalds for refreshments for the
party you plan at the end of your summer reading program, or try a local
photoduplicating business for having flyers printed up. The possibilities
Don't overlook cooperative ventures as a source of programming that
does not involve an outlay of money, although staff time is always
involved. A wonderful example is the Pasadena Arts Workshop which
obtained funding to do outreach arts programs. The programming sites
include the branch libraries in Pasadena, offering their children's librarian
a fine opportunity to expose children to what the library has to offer in the
way of arts and crafts books, puppetry, film programs, etc. And the
audience consists of young people who might not already be library users,
since the project targets minority and disadvantaged populations.
I have touched on a lot of issues here and all haven't been covered.
There are non-LSCA grants available from government agencies such as
the National Endowment for the Humanities that haven't been mention-
ed, but these are easy to find out about.
And as daunting as all this may seem, money does beget money,
success breeds success, so be persistent and patient. Keep in mind the
importance of people skills in the final analysis, people give to people.
Think of the profession of children's or young adult librarian in the
broadest sense; recognize that although you probably have taken courses
where you learned about book selection and book talks, planning film
programs and storytelling, there is a lot more to being a children's or
young adult librarian than you learned in school and that includes fund-
Boss, R. W. (1980). Grant money and how to get it: A handbook for librarians. New York: R.
Brakeley, G. A., Jr. (1980). Tested ways to successful fund raising. New York: AMACOM.
Cassell, K. A., ed. (1986). P.S. from our readers. The Bottom Line: A Financial Magazine for
Librarians, 1 (charter issue), 52.
Elleman, B. (1986, October). Vitalizing the school library. Here's How, 5.
Heyns, B. (1978). Summer learning and the effects of schooling. New York: Academic Press.
Klein, K. (1985). Fundraising for social change. Washington, DC: Center for Responsive
Margolis, B. (1986). In the news: Friends of Libraries are potent fund raisers. The Bottom
Line: A Financial Magazine for Librarians, 1 (charter issue), 7.
Martin, I. (1984). Stretching: Making a little money go.... Rural Libraries, 4(2), 49-53.
McCormick, E. (1986, October). Youth reach: Revitalizing the children's area. American Li-
braries, 17, 712-714.
Van Wyk, J. E. (1985, February). Seattle fame: A celebration of Seattle's young people. Voice
of Youth Advocates, 7, 311-312.
Waters, R. (1985, Spring). Public/private relationships make it happen. Public Library
Quarterly, 6, 27-37.
Youth Services Consultant
Suburban Library System
Burr Ridge, Illinois
Part II: Funding for Youth Services
Library Services and Construction Act
When seeking funding for additional programs, special projects,
expanded library services, etc., the Library Services and Construction Act
(LSCA) grant monies should be considered. All fifty states are entitled to
LSCA funds. Each may administer the funds a little differently; however,
certain requirements are to be met by all. These include the following:
1 . a state must submit a state plan of action;
2. each state must submit a five year program; and
3. each state must review and amend where necessary its approved state
plan, review and revise its five year program and submit an annual
program list of its projects (Corry, 1982, p. 65).
The U.S. Congress authorizes library legislation and appropriates
funds for library services through the Library Services and Construction
Act. These funds are allocated to the states by the U.S. Department of
Education (Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). This agency requires the
state to fulfill the aforementioned obligations to obtain LSCA monies (the
specific regulations for the Library Services and Construction Act may be
found in volume 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, chapters 74, 75, 76
and 77) (Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4).
The LSCA grant process is divided into three title programs. Each title
program has specific guidelines/objectives for the grantee to adhere to
when applying for funding.
Title I funds have been used to purchase library materials such as books
and equipment. It may also be used for salaries, other operating expenses,
for the administration of start plans, and for strengthening the capacity of
state library administrative agencies to meet the needs of the people of the
state (Corry, 1 982, p. 66). These funds are not intended for private or special
library use but rather for use by public libraries which serve all of the
public (Corry, 1982, p. 64).
76 Managers and Missionaries
As a side note, it should be brought to your attention that currently the
Illinois State Library is being asked by the U.S. Department of Education
to return $15 million of LSCA funds which was not specifically used by
"public libraries which serve all of the public." The Illinois State Library
supports multitype library systems. This means that private and public,
academic, high schools, and special libraries are encouraged to become full
participating members of Illinois Library Systems that are multitype.
Those multitype systems that have received LSCA funding for interlibrary
cooperation, delivery, resource sharing, etc. have technically extended the
intent of LSCA funding which again was to be used "for public libraries
which serve all the public."
Although the U.S. Department of Education in no way accuses the
Illinois State Library of using the funds for frivolous acts or specified
misconduct, and indeed have agreed the funds were used to support effec-
tive and creative library services within the state, the fact that the LSCA
funds were not directed only for use by "public libraries which serve all the
public" has prompted the U.S. Department of Education to request a
refund of the allocated funds. This matter is still pending and awaiting a
A library grant submitted specifically for Title I funds must address
one or more of the following seven objectives to be considered:
1 . The extension of public library services to areas without such services.
2. The improvement of such services in areas where such services are
3. Making library services more accessible to persons who, by reason of
distance, residence, or physical handicap, or other disadvantage, are
unable to receive the benefits of public library services regularly made
available to the public.
4. Adapting public library services to meet particular needs of persons
within the state, including the needs of persons in state institutions.
5. Strengthening major urban resource libraries (public libraries).
6. Improving library services to persons with limited English-speaking
ability or with literacy needs.
7. Providing service through community information and referral centers
(Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4).
Any public library in a system, or a system, or other library-related group
may apply for a Title I grant (Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4).
Title II LSCA funds are intended for "construction of new buildings
and acquisition, expansion, remodeling and alteration of existing build-
ings, and may be applied for by any public library or System" (Illinois
State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). Matching fund requirements for Title I and
II were located via amendments to LSCA in 1977. Any federal funds
Part II: Funding for Youth Services 77
expended for the administration of the LSCA act must be equally matched
by state or other nonfederal funds (Corry, 1982, p. 66).
A single entity, two or more types of libraries in a system, or a system
may apply for a Title III grant to plan, establish, expand, and operate
cooperative networks of libraries and to plan for statewide resource sharing
(Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). Purchase of materials such as books
are not fundable under the Title III grant act.
Before the actual grant proposal is written, the author must assess the
needs of his/her library and community needs. Certain questions must be
addressed such as how many patrons will this grant benefit, how will
fulfillment of this grant improve library service to patrons, etc.? If the
intent of your proposal is interagency cooperation, then cooperative plan-
ning and grant writing is necessary.
Once a determination is made on the part of the grantee as to which
Title program they wish to apply to for LSCA funding, they should
contact their state library or library system to ensure following the proper
procedures in the application request. In most cases the information
required for local funding and/or contributions would be required in the
application of an LSCA grant. This includes one or more of the following
an abstract of the project;
a statement of philosophy or need;
a statement of purpose for the project specifying the origins and support
for its implementation;
goals and objectives for the project including a timeline;
procedures for the project's implementation;
an evaluation of the project with specific regards to the goals and objec-
tives that were sought;
a budget which includes in-kind support;
letter of support (Klish et al., pp. 37, 49, 75).
The author of a proposal should meet all the aforementioned compo-
nents of a grant with their own writing style and delivery. This makes the
proposal uniquely theirs. For the sake of the reviewer, no two grant
submissions should be exactly alike in style and composition because the
lack of creativity expressed may indeed be interpreted as a lack of creativity
toward the proposed project. Therefore, when submitting a grant pro-
posal, let it reflect the excitement and influence that is felt toward the
fulfillment of the project.
One of the priorities in the LSCA Title I program is the programming
of library service to disadvantaged persons who might not otherwise have
access to such service (Corry, 1982, p. 67). In the past the term disadvan-
taged has been defined to include native Americans, blacks, foreign speak-
ing citizens, and, more recently, senior citizens, rural farm workers, and
78 Managers and Missionaries
youth (in particular, two categories of youth preschoolers and young
More and more grants are being submitted to initiate programs that
will serve these "unserved." These programs will test the flexibility of the
proposal for continued funding on behalf of the grantee's library in sub-
Again, when seeking funding for additional programs, special proj-
ects, expanded library services, etc. the Library Services and Construction
Act grant monies are available as an alternative to private and/ or local
sources of funding. A serious applicant should contact their state library or
library system for complete grant funding information.
Corry, E. (1982). Grants for libraries. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Illinois State Library Staff, et al. (1984). Library Services and Construction Act grants man-
agement system operating manual. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois.
Kalish, S. E., et al. (1983). The proposal writer's swipe file: 75 winning fund-raising pro-
posals.. .prototypes of approaches, styles and structures. Washington, DC: Taft
Assistant Children's Services Manager
Cuyahoga County Public Library
Marketing Youth Library Services:
A User Approach
Library services to youth are in crisis. New library school graduates
information managers all are refusing to enter the field in the numbers
they used to and library directors often cannot fill positions they have in
youth services. School librarian positions are getting harder to fill as well.
Who, after all, wants to have the sole responsibility for three or four
libraries when each should be supporting a full-time professional? Young
adult librarians are still looked on as optional (The Ohio Library Associa-
tion just held a program called "Young Adult Service, a Right, Not a
Privilege"), and children's librarians are fast becoming an endangered
species in some areas of the country. Can anything be done? Does anyone
The answer must be a resounding yes. Library services for children are
appreciated and demanded by the public. In a 1983 survey of Cuyahoga
County, Ohio residents, 93 percent said library programs for children were
important services for public libraries to offer second only to libraries' duty
to provide information (Decision Research Corporation, 1983, pp. 34, 38).
The positive impact of library summer reading programs on the reading
skills of children has been demonstrated (Greene & Cummins, 1983, pp.
370-372; Heyns, 1978, p. 1 77), and many youth librarians experience glow-
ing testimonies about the quality of life improvements that the library has
effected in the lives of their children and young adults (Broderick,
1986, p. 118).
In the current climate of scarce tax dollars and career climbing after
prestige positions, the forgetful need to be reminded and the ignorant need
to be informed of the fact that youth librarians provide extremely valuable
services to the community. It is time for marketing marketing not only
youth services but youth librarians themselves.
80 Managers and Missionaries
What is marketing? Marketing is the series of decisions that organiza-
tions must make to effectively move their products or services to the user.
Marketing is public relations with an edge. Public relations tries to influence
attitudes, but marketing carefully designs programs that target specific
user groups in terms of their needs and desires and programs that will
bring about a change in user behavior in order to achieve organizational
objectives (Kotler, 1982, p. 6).
According to Philip Kotler (1982), "[mjarketing is the philosophical
alternative to force" (p. 7). Organizations try to offer their attractive mar-
keting packages so that their powerful allure of benefits will induce a
favorable response. In other words, an exchange of value is sought. The
values sought from library users are expressions of tangible and intangible
public support, and increased use of the services libraries provide, services
that in turn satisfy user needs. It is a voluntary trade.
The User Orientation
An organization that tries to sell a product or service solely on the basis
of its own personal tastes will fail. Marketing turns its attention instead on
the user. Focusing on the users' needs and desires and finding ways to
match them to organizational objectives will increase the use of the prod-
ucts and services offered.
Libraries that try to be all things to all people will end up using public
monies inefficiently. If the library manager divides the library's total
market into market segments i.e., subgroups of users with similar charac-
teristics, motivations, and desires it will be easier to identify users' needs
and wants. Then, based on the market segments identified, specific needs
and services that are seldom used can be eliminated, and services that are
wanted by the user can be expanded.
Most libraries also include another factor in their decision-making
i.e., the library's mission to provide quality services. Adopting a user
orientation does not mean that professionals have to give up their profes-
sional expertise, but that they must communicate it better since it adds
additional opinions into the equation of quality service. It is a matter of
Marketing is, however, a democratic process and is antithetical to
elitist approaches. The old "cultural uplift" approach of the nineteenth-
century library has largely given way to providing the needs and wants of
the public regardless of librarians' opinions of appropriateness (Dragon &
Leisner, 1984, p. 34). The "reading ladders" model where librarians offer
the next higher level of excellence in literature or the next better step in
Marketing Youth Library Services 81
edification is not as much used in libraries today but has been replaced
with meeting the expressed and perceived needs and desires of the patron.
Children's librarians have much more difficulty with this trend than
young adult librarians since children are less experienced, less mature, and
less able to make wise decisions for themselves. Children need help and
adults love to give it. Still, over the last twenty years, library service to
children has moved toward giving the wants of young patrons much more
attention than it used to and this is reflected in children's library collec-
The process of planning new services to market in the future should
involve a close look at trends in society. Visionaries such as Alvin Toffler
(1970; 1 980) and John Naisbitt( 1982) have published valuable perspectives
on current society "megatrends" and their future possibilities. The credi-
bility of these major trends has been established in the business community
and in the management literature (Conroy, 1984, p. 9). The implications
for library service are strong.
There are three major trends discernible in society today that will have
an increasingly strong impact on youth library services in the decades
ahead. The first is that society has changed from a society based on
industrial production to one based on the creation and distribution of
information. New electronic information technologies are being invented
so fast that it is impossible for most people to keep up with it all. Comput-
ers shrink, but their power grows. Their ability to store retrievable bits of
information in ever smaller microscopic storage areas continues to pro-
gress. Although the book is not likely to be replaced soon, information is
being stored in a variety of technological formats, and youth librarians
must continue to be knowledgeable about them and to provide an increas-
ing number of strategically marketed library programs involving the new
The second important trend states that as new technologies are intro-
duced, there must be a balancing human response to ensure that the
technologies are accepted. A "high touch" is needed to offset and ease the
way of the "high tech. " Some library programs will be aimed at making the
new technology "user friendly." Other programs for youth will focus on
understanding the complexities of modern life and on bringing meaning
to human lives surrounded by nonhuman technologies. Continued
emphasis on the youth literatures through book talks, storytelling, and
reading programs will bring the greater human interaction and communi-
cation needed to cope with hard-edged technologies and an intense world.
The third important trend affecting society-at-large is that hierarchi-
cal, centralized, organizational structures are giving way to participatory,
82 Managers and Missionaries
decentralized, informal networks. As individuals become more aware of
choices, more willing to work for long-term considerations, and more
desirous of seeking greater control over their lives, they want to participate
in decisions that affect them. More and more people are preferring to
exchange ideas and information as equals and hate it when someone
"pulls rank." Networking methods are evolving now that connect people
at all levels of organizations. The Type Z organization and the quality
circle problem-solving groups are two examples. Directors and managers
trained in the hierarchical model will feel increasingly frustrated if they
don't change because everyone, it will seem to them, will be wanting to
know all the reasons for every decision. Some administrators may feel this
In the library field itself, administrators have been putting increasing
importance on marketing the library. The library profession, according to
The ALA Yearbook of Library and Information Services, "appears to be
refining its attitudes away from a previous mode of bubbly, gregarious
enthusiasm for PR. In its place, a more subtle, sophisticated approach to
promotion has taken root. Public relations also seems to enjoy a previously
unknown aura of respectability in the upper echelons of management"
(Eldredge, 1986, p. 252).
Nonprofit organizations of all types have recently taken a careful,
attentive approach to marketing their services and library directors have
also taken to arranging their public relations efforts according to thought
out plans. User-oriented marketing is not a temporary fad. In light of
society "megatrends" and of trends within librarianship itself, it would
seem wise for youth librarians to give the subject considerable thought
and effort as well.
Library services to youth reach a number of markets e.g., preschool-
ers, elementary school children, young adults, parents, teachers, other
professionals who work with youth, administrators, boards of trustees,
community organizations, the disabled, volunteers, etc. Library markets
grow and change, so identifying new groups to serve is an ongoing process.
To develop a strategy for marketing a new target group, it is necessary
to collect data about them. It is helpful to know the group's needs and
wants, their size, age range, location, education, lifestyle, other groups
serving them, the group's likelihood of continuing with the library service
under consideration, the public relations possibilities, and the cost of
reaching the group. Once these factors are considered and weighed against
library resources, it is possible to determine whether an effective change or
addition to services can be made.
Marketing Youth Library Services
Once the target group is using library services, more information
needs to be collected to determine patterns of use. Analyzed data can lead to
tailoring the service even closer to the needs of the user. The recent interest
in output measures by library administrators underscores their interest in
gathering information about users and reinforces the recognition of
library directors' increased user orientation. Youth librarians should also
use output data as it can provide additional information in designing
programs and in managing their collections (Hippenhammer, 1986,
The Marketing Mix
Most people think of marketing in terms of selling and advertising.
This is not surprising since it is estimated that the average consumer is
bombarded with 1600 messages of advertisement throughout the course of
one day (Fox, 1984, p. 328). But marketing is much more than selling. It
offers several techniques that managers can use to cover the broad spectrum
of factors that influence buying (using) behavior. These techniques are
called product, price, distribution, and promotion. Blending these tools to
produce an effective marketing package is called designing the marketing
mix (Kotler, 1982, p. 8).
The first technique involves examining five controllable characteris-
tics of the product: styling, features, quality, packaging, and branding
(Kotler, 1982, pp. 292-95). The distinctive look or "feel" of a product is its
"styling." A warm, brightly-colored children's room will attract users
more than a cold imposing one, for example. Optional product compo-
nents that can be changed without altering its essence are called "features."
Adding a celebrity visit to one's summer reading club may be optional, but
it may help in getting free media publicity. The "quality" of a service is its
perceived level of performance over time and "packaging" is the larger
situation or surroundings that contain the service. Library architecture,
children's room arrangement, and shelving design are all examples of
packaging. Lastly, giving brand names or logos to products is an attempt
to identify and distinguish them as different from the competition's prod-
ucts, usually as more unique or prestigious. Renaming libraries "media
centers" is an example of this "branding."
The second technique of marketing is pricing. The problem with
encouraging the marketing of libraries is that demands may outstrip
resources. In the profit sector, price acts as a control on demand but in
nonprofit libraries demand is usually limited through library policies
(e.g., restrictions on telephone reference questions and on the number of
videotapes circulated) and staff behavior (from shushing to policing youth
behavior). Generally, libraries try to provide "free" service to maximize
84 Managers and Missionaries
use, but every service has its costs, whether it is invisible tax support, a
trade-off in other services not provided, or inconvenience.
The third marketing technique is distribution. Libraries must make
their services available and accessible to their potential users. The design,
location, and number of facilities will affect library use. Other common
ways to distribute library services have been to use bookmobiles, make
classroom visits, or deliver kits of library materials to outreach centers.
The last marketing technique is promotion. Publicity is the most
widely used type of promotion in libraries. Publicity is the nonpaid,
favorable attention given to a product or service through various media
and published as significant news (Kotler, 1982, p. 355). Youth librarians
are strong on producing flyers, posters, bulletin boards, press releases,
newsletters, and bibliographies, but not so strong on making television
and radio appearances, giving speeches, or creating news events. In-person
selling (i.e., building goodwill) and paid advertising are other forms of
promotion that work and that should also be examined for use in different
The bulk of public relations is doing the job well and reminding
others of that quality. On regularly scheduled occasions, however, librar-
ians should plan and execute the new and or unusual service or marketing
project. Perhaps a dusty, old, not-much-used service needs a new polishing
or a library image of one kind or another needs updating. For example:
Little Miss Muffet / Sat on a tuffet / Eating her curds and whey. / Along
came a spider / And sat down beside her / And frightened Miss Muffet
Miss Muffet, in this age of feminism, has an image problem. Few
self-respecting librarians of either sex today would ever admit publicly to
being frightened by something as insignificant as a spider. But one must
ask what technological spiders are sitting down beside youth librarians
these days and what are their reactions? No doubt, a second verse for poor
little Miss Muffet is needed. Big Bad Giant / Sat on his Reliant / Eating his
Big Mac with cheese. / He whistled at Ms. Muffett / Who told him to stuff
it / And kicked him one right on the knees.
Gaining credibility for youth library services is a difficult business.
Libraries in society are generally invisible e.g., libraries were not even
mentioned in A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in
Education, 1983) and within the library profession, service to children is
generally invisible and neglected (White, 1983, pp. 97-99).
Countering the invisibility of youth library services must be
approached by confronting several market segments. The first market to
Marketing Youth Library Services 85
address is the library administrator or principal. Youth librarians need to
be seen as managers or as part of the managerial team in order to carry some
weight in decision-making. Unfortunately, being creative and offering
creative programs is often seen as incompatible with being an effective
manager. It is perhaps understandable that administrators feel this way if
they regularly see children's librarians in clown suits.
There are, however, several ways to gain credibility with administra-
tors: (1) provide a solid program of substance and save the flash for key
public relations moments; (2) regularly communicate that substance to the
administrator through monthly and special reports as well as in person;
(3) be cooperative in projects the administrator wants tried; and (4) never
let the administrator or other professionals get away with accusing a youth
librarian of having fun on the job. After all, it is work and hard work at
that. If you are having fun, keep it under your hat.
Parents, teachers, and other professionals who serve youth are impor-
tant additional markets with whom youth librarians should build strong
relationships. Do this by communicating even marketing one's ser-
vices to them, by cooperating in projects with them, and by treating their
children right. Treating young library patrons with the same courtesy and
consideration adults would get will not only impress them but their
parents and teachers as well.
The most important markets to confront are the children and young
adults themselves. Get to know their wants and needs and then provide
library materials and services to meet them. Student advisory councils have
worked well, especially with young adults. Ask for their opinions. Spend a
small part of the materials budget on their fads and hot topics and enter
into and be able to discuss their current interests. Several "with-it" posters
in the library can do wonders for public relations and make the library a
more comfortable place to visit. Keeping the library alive and sensitive to
its many varied markets and meeting patrons well are two precepts that
account for 90 percent of effective library service (Hunsicker, 1973, p. 120).
Adequately communicating that good performance to the public so it is
publicly appreciated is effective public relations. Credibility is based on
just such recognized, consistent, competent performance.
Acting Now for the Future
Having looked at some major trends in society and at the need for a
marketing user orientation, what specific actions can be taken to improve
the public relations of, and the future of, library service to youth? There are
three areas where improvements can be made. The first is to identify new
market segments (new publics). One such market segment is preschoolers
in day-care centers and day-care homes. Preschoolers in day-care homes
86 Managers and Missionaries
and their caregivers are a group virtually untouched by targeted library
service and the need is great. During 1985, 39 percent of all three-and-four-
year-olds were enrolled in preschool compared to 1 1 percent twenty years
earlier, and between 75 and 90 percent of all family day-care facilities are
unlicensed or unregistered (Brophy, 1986, p. 60).
A second market segment is latchkey school-age children. This group
is a growing societal phenomenon and cooperative programs with other
community agencies are needed.
A third market segment involves youth in crisis. Library information
and referral programs for youth with drug problems, suicide intentions,
need for abortion alternatives, etc. or cooperation with community pro-
grams, hot-lines and other in-place civic organization aids should con-
tinue to be established.
The last two potential markets, home schools and the new conserva-
tive parochial schools, have grown remarkably in the last decade with the
rise of the new conservatism, and both have little or no library service.
Careful communication will be the key to serving these two groups
The second area where improvements should meet the future of
library service to youth is in polishing the image of the youth librarian.
1 . The concept of generic librarians, known by some as generalists, must
be fought. This model of library service has been devastating to the age
subject specialties and to service to youth. Children and young adults
need librarians deeply knowledgeable in their literatures.
2. Youth librarians must be seen as public service professionals. Making a
children's librarian catalog juvenile books in a back corner is wasting a
public service talent and wasting public relations opportunities. Hir-
ing a young adult librarian who likes to catalog books is like hiring a
reference librarian who hates to answer the phone.
3. Publicize awards and recognitions won by youth librarians.
4. Highlight successful youth librarians in both local and national media.
5. Train speakers to promote not only the youth literatures but also the
youth library business. All youth librarians should be trained to see
themselves as PR ambassadors but a handful of especially fluent and
verbal "personalities" should be subsidized to argue and enhance the
case at the national level, both within and without the profession. The
youth associations within ALA could gather the research studies, anec-
dotes, and other supportive material in a handy form for background
information for persuasive speech making.
6. Youth librarians should mentor and recruit public service talent into
7. Start establishing a corporate image for "youth library services" by
developing the recognizable, visual identity of a logo or symbol. Done
Marketing Youth Library Services 87
right, branding can be a powerful public relations tool.
The third area where changes should be made is in fine-tuning library
services to the trends of the future and to their public relations impact:
1 . Include patron use data in managing youth library collections, particu-
larly in additional copy acquisition and weeding decisions.
2. Budget for special public relations programs.
3. Examine opportunities within the community for outreach, particu-
larly within the political arena e.g., Cuyahoga County Public
Library's 1986 Summer Reading Club theme was "Hooray for the
U.S.A.!" a theme that tied in nicely with the Statue of Liberty centen-
nial celebrations, and one that gave many local politicians the oppor-
tunity to participate in patriotic celebrations at their local library. The
governor of Ohio also awarded a citation of merit and letters of congrat-
ulations to reading club participants.
4. Delegate preschool story hours to well- trained assistants so the profes-
sional can concentrate on the more difficult toddler and school-age
5. Increase the use of puppets and puppet shows to extend children's
literature to wider audiences.
6. Encourage the telling of literary stories in a nonmemorized, storytelling
7. Look for ways to mesh new technologies with current library practice
e.g., create a literary pen pal book reviewing club using electronic
bulletin boards and modems to encourage young readers to recommend
books to their peers.
8. Start a juvenile videotape collection that circulates to children.
As the twenty-first century approaches, it is imperative that youth
librarians look to identifying new library user groups and tailoring ser-
vices to their needs. Areas of service most likely to grow will be:
(1) technological forms of information (high tech); (2) human responses
through literature and nurturing (high touch); and (3) democratic and
egalitarian approaches to supplying user wants and needs (direct touch).
The techniques of marketing are ideally suited to addressing these needs of
Needs assessment is an ongoing process that demands constant reeval-
uation. After data collection from market segment users, it may be found
that Miss Muffet's new image as updated earlier is too sharp and a modified
image is needed: Little Ms. Muffet / Can rough it and tough it / And face
up to problems galore. / Demanding and gaining / Assertiveness training,
/ She flinches at spiders no more.
88 Managers and Missionaries
The world needs to be told that youth librarians are a new breed. The
assertive, knowledgeable, creative talent in the youth library field is
impressive. Yes, youth services must be marketed, but the profession needs
to market its most valuable resource its own personnel the professional
Broderick, D. M., (Ed.) (1986, August/October). Guest editorial. Voice of Youth Advocates,
Brophy, B. (1986, 27 October). Children under stress. U.S. News and World Report, 101, 60.
Conroy, B. (1984). Megatrend marketing: Creating the library's future. In G. T. Ford (Ed.),
Marketing and the library (pp. 9-17). New York: Haworth Press.
Decision Research Corporation. (1983). A survey of attitudes towards the Cuyahoga County
Public Library. Cleveland: DRC.
Dragon, A. C., & Leisner, T. (1984). The ABCs of implementing library marketing. In G. T.
Ford (Ed.), Marketing and the library (pp. 34-41). New York: Haworth Press.
Eldredge, J. (1986). Public relations. In R. Parent (Ed. ),ALA yearbook of library and informa-
tion services: A review of library events 1985. (Vol. 11) (pp. 252-53). Chicago: ALA.
Fox, S. R. (1984). The mirror makers: A history of American advertising and its creators. New
Greene, E., fe Cummins, J. (1983, Summer). Reading, libraries, and summer achievement.
Top of the News, 39, 370-372.
Heyns, B. (1978). Summer learning and the effects of schooling. New York: Academic Press.
Hippenhammer, C. (1986, Spring). Managing children's library collections through objec-
tive data. Top of the News, 42, 309-313.
Hunsicker, Marya. (1973). Public relations in a children's room. In A. Angoff (Ed.), Public
relations for libraries: Essays in communications techniques (pp. 1 1 7-3 1 ). Westport, CT:
Kotler, P. (1982). Marketing for nonprofit organizations (2nd ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Matthews, A. J. (1984). Library market segmentation: An effective approach for meeting
client needs. In G. T. Ford (Ed.), Marketing and the library (pp. 20-26). New York:
Naisbitt, J. (1982). Megatrends: Ten new directions transforming our lives. New York:
'The National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The impera-
tive for educational reform. Washington, DC: The Commission.
O'Brien, P. M. (1981, Spring). An administrator speaks of services to youth. Top of the News,
Toffler, A. (1980). Third wave. New York: Morrow.
Toffler, A. (1970). Future shock. New York: Random House.
White, L. J. (1983). The public library in the 1980s: The problems of choice. Lexington, MA:
Graduate School of Library & Information Science
The Right Stuff: Recruitment and Education
for Children's and Young Adult Specialists
"There was something ancient, primordial, irresistible about the chal-
lenge of this stuff, no matter what a sophisticated and rational age one
might think he lived in" (Wolfe, 1984, p. 22). In his exploration of the
bonds of fraternity among the military test pilots who achieved heroic
status as the early astronauts, Tom Wolfe was fascinated by an almost
tangible but undefinable central quality by which its members were
ranked. Energy, guts, bravery, idealism, and more seemed obvious traits,
but somewhere beyond these lay an "ineffable quality" implicitly under-
stood by the men in this special brotherhood. Theirs was a time of striving
for recognition, for pride, and for legitimacy as they tested and extended
the limits of their specialized occupation. In time they gained not only
glory, but, more importantly, acceptance by their peers. And then the
institutional structure in which they worked and the very world itself
changed. Having achieved their place as "deserving occupants at the top of
the pyramid of the right stuff" (Wolfe, 1984, p. 366), the importance of the
fraternity and the ideal began to slip away.
Not long ago a friend and colleague who is the head of children's
services in a public library serving a community of about 40,000 was
reflecting on problems of assessing the background and skills of applicants
for a position as children's librarian. She was pointing out that the aca-
demic and work experiences listed on the resume and application are often
not very reliable indicators of the actual education or training the individ-
ual has been provided. "You simply can't assume any common set of
competencies," she commented. While the common sense of this seems
pretty basic, don't we usually suppose that if a person has taken the
requisite courses in library school, there will be at least a passing acquain-
tance with some widely understood tenets of children's literature, say, or
school librarianship or young adult services?
90 Managers and Missionaries
A similar but more formal set of statements regarding competencies
was developed by Patsy Perritt and Kathleen Heim in an article for the
Winter 1987 issue of Top of the News on the ALA-accredited master's
degree as the basic professional credential for youth services librarians.
They observe that: "National standards for youth services in librarianship,
except for those in the school setting, have not been developed, utilized,
and promoted by members of the profession, and this is one of the reasons
educational programs for youth services lack centrality" (Perritt & Heim,
1987, p. 154). One might add that, on an informal level, we do have
something of a centrality of belief about the personal and professional
characteristics and skills desirable for youth services librarians. We have
pretty commonly held ideas about the right stuff for librarians serving
children and adolescents, and these tend to be both rooted in long abiding
ideals and to have developed some new tenets in response to shifts in
management theory and political realities in libraries and schools. We
have a strong collegiality based on idealism, pragmatism, and frustration
about our status in the larger library profession. It is true that we have not
developed structured definitions and programs which might effectively
put youth services at the height we believe it deserves on the pyramid of
What then is the right stuff? Who has the responsibility for identifying
and developing it? How well is this being done? What can we as library
educators, youth services librarians, and members of professional organi-
zations do to make sure that it is done better? The following discussion will
look at some of the formulations of professional competencies, comment
on the relationship of these to curriculum offerings in library schools,
examine some current issues and problems in professional education for
youth services specialists, and finally suggest some action items for the
agenda we hope will emerge from this Allerton conference.
What about the contention that we don't have a set of national youth
services standards upon which to construct and evaluate professional
education? In the strictest sense this is true, of course, but let us look at the
content and similarities in existing documents. The school library/media
field, being both the most complex and the most formulated, is the logical
place to begin. The national standards published in 1975 and to be
replaced in the near future, stipulate that: "The media specialist holds a
master's degree in media from a program that combines library and infor-
mation science, educational communications and technology, and curric-
ulum." This academic program is to develop a specified list of
competencies, including, among others, planning and administration,
Recruitment and Education 91
analysis of user characteristics and information needs, media design and
production, and interpretation and application of research (American
Association of School Librarians, 1975, pp. 22-23).
It is not mandated that the master's degree be from an accredited
library school, and, as has been widely noted and discussed, school media
specialists are subject to the requirements of certification regulations set by
the individual states. From a pragmatic point of view, state regulations,
being a condition of employment, generally take precedence over the
national standards which lack a structured means of enforcement. Some-
times the national and state requirements are similar or even congruent. As
noted in Ann Franklin's 1984 survey of school library media certification
requirements in each state, published in the January 1984 School Library
Journal, some states include a requirement of an MLS, some levels of
certification require a master's degree plus additional hours of study, and
in many cases a number of stipulated hours short of a master's degree will
suffice (Franklin, 1984, pp. 21-34). Presumably the lack of uniform appli-
cation of the national standard causes some difficulty for individuals
wishing to relocate from one state to another.
Not only do the academic requirements and desired competencies for
school library media specialists differ widely among states, but there are
distinctly different opinions in the library education field as to whether the
accredited library schools are the most appropriate providers of profes-
sional education for such specialists. Jane Hannigan, in a wide-ranging
examination of library education, has advocated moving "all educational
responsibility for this professional to schools of education" (Hannigan,
1984, p. 55). Perritt and Heim (1987), anxious to further the commonalities
among youth services in the library schools and in professional practice,
admit that one of the most important of the unresolved problems is
"professional consensus as to the location of the educational component"
(p. 156). In this largest of the youth specialties, and the only one to actually
have national standards, there is no centrality as described earlier by these
While there are no functional national standards for children's and
young adult services, the widely recognized "Competencies for Librarians
Serving Youth," developed by ALA's Young Adult Services Division
(YASD), is generally considered prescriptive and useful as a guide for
professional education and for the development of library positions. This
document does not specify a level of academic achievement but stipulates
specific areas of knowledge and skills pertaining to: leadership and profes-
sionalism, knowledge of the client group, communication, administra-
tion, knowledge of materials, access to information, and services.
Competencies involved in knowledge of the client group include applying
factual and interpretive information on adolescent psychology, growth
92 Managers and Missionaries
and development, sociology, and popular culture and also knowledge of
the reading process in planning for materials and services. The manage-
ment skills include identification and development of external funding,
applying and conducting research, and monitoring legislation. Service
capabilities include two that have been particular philosophical tenets of
the young adult services field i.e., crisis intervention counseling and
involving young adults in planning and implementing services for their
age group (Young Adult Services Division, 1982, p. 51). The Board of
Directors of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) (1986)
recently adopted recommendations of a long-range planning task force
which included the development of a set of competencies for children's
librarians, and the task has been assigned to the division's education
In the absence of national children's services standards, many state
library agencies and professional associations have developed standards in
recent years or are now in the process of doing so. The Standards for Youth
Services in Public Libraries of New York State include a list of competen-
cies which are a close adaptation of the YASD competencies. Since the title
of the original document designates "youth" rather than "young adults,"
the New York task force simply substituted the same term throughout the
document wherever "young adults" had been used to designate the client
group with a resulting list intended for use with both children's and young
adult librarians. No indication is given of competencies which might be
more germane to either one of the services. The YASD list was apparently
intended primarily for use in library education since the competencies
were all designated for "the student"; the New York list assigns them for
"the librarian" (New York Library Association, 1984).
The competencies stated in the standards for school library media
centers are not markedly different from the YASD competencies, and,
although both are probably due for further examination and discussion,
there does seem to be enough common ground to develop a central set of
skills and characteristics for librarians serving youth, both children and
adolescents, whether in a public library setting or a school library media
Competencies which are agreed upon and promulgated by national
organizations set one sort of standard for professional education. Another
useful standard is level of academic achievement. The master's degree from
an ALA accredited library school has been the generally accepted require-
ment for entry into professional librarianship, but, as previously mention-
ed, different requirements often apply to a very substantial segment of the
field, namely school librarianship. What of children's and young adult
services in public libraries? Several of the state level standards recommend
(most do not require) an M.L.S. for the librarian responsible for youth
Recruitment and Education 93
services at the local library. A number of state surveys of children's services
provide interesting information about the academic credentials actually
held by children's librarians. A 1978 survey of Illinois public libraries, for
example, focused on many aspects of thirty-two libraries selected, among
other reasons, for their reputed strength in services to children. It was
found that seventeen, or a little better than 50 percent, of the librarians had
an M.L.S. Six librarians had bachelor's degrees, and eight (25 percent) had
less than a bachelor's degree (Richardson, 1978, pp. 136-137). A more
recently published survey of 285 children's librarians in Michigan revealed
that 136 (47.7 percent) had an M.L.S. In this instance, sixty-six individuals
(23.1 percent) had less than a bachelor's degree, while the remaining
eighty-three had bachelor's degrees or other degrees and certificates. In this
study, 7.7 percent of the librarians were noted as attending school, but the
levels of study were not specified. It was also found that 67 percent of the
respondents had earned continuing education units (CEUs) (Todara, et al.,
1985, p. 5).
The information from these surveys are important parts of the demo-
graphics of our profession a subject to be explored further in this
program which raise questions about professional competencies and
credentials for youth services librarians. Provided we accept the assump-
tion that the M.L.S. is desirable as the entry-level professional require-
ment, how can we encourage its achievement by more librarians? Is it
reasonable to suppose that all public and school libraries could or should
have professionally educated librarians? How do we define professional?
What are the educational needs and requirements of those youth services
librarians who have not earned the professional degree? Clearly, various
states have been struggling with some of these questions, though we lack
cohesive information about the results of state efforts which we might draw
upon for a strong national system on which to plan and promote profes-
sional education in youth services.
Just as all states have certification requirements, some states also
certify librarians for the public library field usually on the basis of less
complex requirements. The subject of certification is by no means new, but
in recent years some writers have suggested that this idea deserves attention
in the national scheme of regulating professional credentials. Standards
and a mechanism for certification are sometimes advocated and
disputed as an alternative to the present scheme of the M.L.S. as the
preferred basic requirement (see Willett, 1984, pp. 13-23). Certification
may also be seen as a system for ensuring competency at various levels of
professional responsibility, and this notion ought to be considered at a
national level as a potential means of strengthening both the provision of
library services to youth and the role of youth services librarianship in the
larger professional field.
94 Managers and Missionaries
Aside from philosophical interests and concern about professional-
ism, there is a very practical matter which lends urgency to the notions of
competencies and certification. At the present time the demand for librar-
ians in the youth services specialties outstrips by far the supply of candi-
dates entering the field through library schools. John Berry (1986) strongly
stated the shortage of children's and young adult librarians in a recent
Library Journal editorial (p. 4). The accompanying report on national
placements of library school graduates for 1985 showed more librarians
placed in public libraries than in any other type a situation occurring for
the first time since 1977. Moreover, of the 2, 387 placements, 313 ( 13 percent)
were in youth services with an almost even split between public and school
librarians. The three largest specialties were children's services in public
libraries (113 positions), children's services in school libraries (112 posi-
tions), and business libraries (100 positions). Additionally, there were
forty-five placements in youth services in public libraries, forty in youth
services in school libraries, and three in children's services "other" (Lear-
mont 8c Van Houten, 1986, p. 35). It must be admitted that some large areas
of librarianship, such as reference services, were not delineated in the
specialty listings, but youth services librarians are nonetheless an impres-
sive population among the recently placed graduates of library schools.
Placements of graduates are only one part of the supply and demand
picture. We don't have an accurate accounting of the total number of
professional vacancies nationwide, but, based on records for just one
region, one can surmise that there is a very large shortfall. In New England
alone there were 771 professional positions posted during 1985. The
library school at Simmons with by far the largest number of placements
of any library school placed only 141 graduates (Learmont & Van
Houten, pp. 32-33). Thirteen of the graduates were placed in foreign
countries and another 11 went to states outside the region, leaving 123
individuals to fill only about 16 percent of the vacancies. Youth services
positions numbered 159 (20.6 percent) of the total (Simmons College,
1986). Much smaller numbers of placements were made by the library
schools at Southern Connecticut University and the University of Rhode
Island, and presumably a few individuals came into the region from other
states. However, the gap is still large, and faculty and administration at
Simmons would testify from the numbers of phone calls from desperate
library administrators that the crisis is of far greater proportions than
indicated in the Library Journal survey.
The shortage of library school graduates has several implications for
youth services. Some vacant positions even those offering fine salaries
are going unfilled. Some are being filled by graduates who did not antici-
pate going into these specialties and had no relevant specialty coursework
at all. Some are being filled by so-called preprofessionals, who have widely
Recruitment and Education 95
divergent amounts and kinds of experience. Some of them will settle in com-
fortably and perform very competently while others will struggle along at
a mediocre level; all can be paid lower salaries than a professional candidate.
The Massachusetts Library Association is busily developing chil-
dren's services standards which will state competencies and recommend an
M.L.S. children's librarian for every library (Massachusetts Library Associ-
ation, 1988). A large part of the impetus for developing standards in this
instance came from library administrators concerned about the current
shortage of qualified children's librarians. State certification of children's
librarians has been discussed but only tentatively. This is a state and a
region that has employed effective recruitment strategies for youth
services e.g., excellent coverage of the shortage in metropolitan and
suburban newspapers, a slide-tape presentation to encourage library trust-
ees to support professional levels of children's services, and a brochure on
youth services careers for distribution by local libraries to high schools and
colleges. Children's librarians have worked with their professional col-
leagues to pass minimum salary recommendations for the state; while
salaries are certainly uneven in the state, there has been a noticeable
upward trend since the minimum salary has been advocated (and the level
has been raised three times in just a few years). Enrollment in the youth
services courses at Simmons is strong and rising but still falls far short of
the demand since many of these students already fill professional posi-
tions. The complexities of recruitment have received attention in national
programs and journals, but the national professional organizations have
not moved beyond discussion to a strong, concerted program or projects to
address the problem.
Librarians sometimes tend to blame the library schools for failures
both in attracting students to the field and in educating them adequately to
meet library needs. The general antipathy between practicing profession-
als and library schools has been variously documented (Conant, 1980) and
has certainly been shared in part by youth services librarians. The wide-
spread assumption that library schools don't support youth services was
exacerbated in the early 1980s when library schools in several states were
closing, declining to fill faculty positions in the youth services specialties,
or transferring responsibility for the youth services curriculum to other
schools or departments of the parent institution. State professional associ-
ations did battle with the library schools in several instances, and the youth
divisions of ALA endorsed their efforts and expressed concern to library
school deans. Some efforts succeeded in gaining renewed support of youth
services in the library schools, but others failed, leaving great gaps in
professional education in some parts of the country.
One study was undertaken by this author and Melody Allen, consul-
tant for children's services at the Rhode Island State Library, to document
96 Managers and Missionaries
the alleged deterioration of support for youth services in the library
schools. A survey of all the accredited schools was conducted in the spring
of 1985 asking about course offerings, faculty, enrollment, continuing
education, and other matters. The results were encouraging in many
respects but did not provide the desired comprehensive view since just
thirty-eight of the sixty-seven schools (56.7 percent) accredited at the time
provided usable returns. There was evidence of a good array of regularly
offered core courses in children's and young adult services and school
librarianship in the majority of schools. Courses tended to be offered by
tenured or tenure-track faculty, and the number of these positions was
healthy if not large a fact that seems even more positive when viewed in
light of the published placement figures for the individual schools (Allen &
Bush, 1987). These would suggest quite small enrollments in youth ser-
vices specialties in many cases; it was notable that schools often did not
provide enrollment information. It was not possible to establish enroll-
ment trends for the three-year period queried. The returns indicated very
few students doing advanced level specialization beyond the M.L.S. a
very serious situation in a set of specialties badly in need of deepening and
strengthening their theoretical base. The most positive information
gleaned in the study was the array of faculty interests, projects, and teach-
ing responsibilities. Several schools known to have strong youth services
faculty did not respond to the survey, and, even without these individuals,
the pool of talent and leadership reflected in the returns was truly
The leadership of library school faculty in the youth services fields
merits attention since these individuals have been particularly effective in
professional associations in recent years. In ALA's Association for Library
Service to Children (ALSC), three of the past five presidents were library
educators, and, during several of these years, faculty have also served as
presidents of the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and
of the Young Adult Services Division (YASD). Many more such individu-
als have served on the divisions' boards of directors and have chaired
committees; some have gone on to major responsibilities in other units of
ALA. These individuals continue to provide leadership, to keep our inter-
ests very much alive in the library schools, and to contribute significantly
to development of professional programs such as this Allerton conference.
(The notion of a national conference of children's, school, and young adult
librarians to forge a joint agenda for the future was first proposed by
Shirley Aaron of Florida State University when she was president of AASL
and was further developed by a very active ALSC and YASD member,
Leslie Edmonds of the University of Illinois.) Though bonds between a
significant number of library educators and other youth services profes-
sionals are indeed strong, it probably cannot be said that librarians in these
Recruitment and Education 97
specialties have any greater trust of library schools than their other librar-
ian colleagues. It may well be, however, that we don't actually suffer the
practitioner/educator gap to the degree sometimes noted in parts of the
library field. In looking toward a future agenda, there ought to be oppor-
tunity for further creative partnerships and collaborations.
In spite of the noted commitment of many library schools to youth
services, we still don't have adequate information about the actual quality
of professional education in these specialties, and, of course, it is known
informally that there is a lack of good course offerings at some schools. As
library schools have suffered declining enrollments and some have been
closed in recent years, a growing number of writers have suggested that the
professional schools ought to become individually more specialized rather
than each trying to serve the broad spectrum of librarianship. Ralph
Conant, in his well-known study of library education sponsored by ALA
and funded by the H. W. Wilson Co., strongly recommended a national
plan which would further decrease the number of schools and would
"recommend an appropriate distribution of specializations among the
surviving library schools" (Conant, 1980, p. 62). Jane Anne Hannigan,
long-time library educator and youth services specialist, also raised this
possibility in a substantial examination of how excellence might be
achieved in library education. "[PJerhaps the time has come for library
schools to recognize that they can be qualitatively superior only by limit-
ing the number of specialized programs they offer and thus concentrating
limited resources" (Hannigan, 1984, p. 6).
Such suggestions of narrowing the focus of schools and decreasing the
specializations of each school are more than a little unsettling to youth
services librarians since they suspect that library schools would follow the
example of many public libraries and school districts that have cut back
support for library services to children and adolescents in bad financial
times. This might not be exactly the case since library schools do respond
(at least somewhat) to the demands of the marketplace, and there are
increased postings and placements in youth services.
The shortage of librarians is widespread, occurring in many parts of
the country, and of course many individuals who are potential youth
services librarians are women with families who are returning to the work
force most would be unable to go to another state for their professional
education. We must continue to provide a basic level of specialization in
youth services in every library school. But we must also look more carefully
at the proposition of identifying, promoting, and building upon those
programs which offer greater depth of specialization. In a recent article on
the future of services to young adults, Gerald Hodges (1987), a faculty
member at the University of Iowa and long active in the leadership of
YASD, proposes that the three ALA youth divisions make it a top priority
98 Managers and Missionaries
to identify several programs and develop funding to support these as
models or centers of strong specialization (p. 173).
While the earlier discussion focuses on library schools, these institu-
tions are by no means the sole providers of youth services professional
education. Continuing education, in-service training, and self-
development are all essential in building the skills and knowledge of youth
services librarians. As with the academic programs, there is a lack of
comprehensive information and consensus about what needs to be pro-
vided and how best to provide it. In some cases there is cooperation between
libraries, professional associations, and library schools to plan and provide
educational opportunities, but, generally, communication and shared
planning are haphazard. This is not to suggest that all education has to be
jointly sponsored or conform to some master plan, but it seems obvious
that educational opportunity for the individual youth services librarian
could be strengthened considerably through the clarifying of roles and
increased sharing of assessment and planning. The reporting of good
programs is not always as full or widespread as we might like, but, as with
the academic offerings, there are very good models upon which to build. A
recent example is an Iowa program reported in considerable detail in the
Rural Library Service Newsletter (Cresap, 1986, p. 14). Planned by Marilyn
Nickelsberg of the State Library of Iowa for children's librarians and
public library directors responsible for children's services in rural com-
munities, this program was intended to provide management training for
staff who have little or no professional education. The intensive two-day
program gave some seventy-five librarians an opportunity to acquire new
insights and techniques for planning, developing, and assessing children's
services. In addition to informative content and a stimulating format, this
program was exemplary in other ways. The planner was extremely effec-
tive in collaborating she selected a children's consultant from another
state library and a faculty member from a distant library school as her
presenters and had them share the program planning from the outset. She
also publicized and documented the program carefully, fully intending
that other states be encouraged to emulate this effort. Her well-attended,
substantial program served both her audience and other education provid-
ers very well indeed.
There is a great mass of workshops, programs, and training sessions
which provide educational opportunities to youth services librarians each
year at the local, state, national, and even international level. Some of these
respond to local needs and others to very specialized interests, while others
have widespread appeal and may or may not be well publicized. In this
so-called information age, it would be wonderful indeed if we had some
central mechanism for collecting and disseminating information about
educational program offerings; theoretically, at least, this would provide
Recruitment and Education 99
greater opportunity for individuals to avail themselves of programs and
would also enable us to discern the patterns of what is being provided and
what might be missing.
There are many issues related to nonacademic educational opportuni-
ties which need to be addressed. The previously mentioned survey of
library schools included a component on continuing education offerings
which indicated programs in a broad range of subject areas. However, the
most frequently offered programs and those with the highest attendance
were predominantly those concerned with children's books and storytell-
ing. Programs related to computers were also offered somewhat frequently,
and there were fewer offerings related to management of youth services
(Allen fc Bush, 1987). Lacking a strong philosophical and theoretical basis
in regard to education and training, program providers generally respond
to the marketplace, offering what they believe the clientele wants and/or
needs. Needs assessment as part of program planning, motivating youth
services staff toward more diverse professional development, and better
funding for educational opportunities are all subjects which ought to be
on our agenda.
Youth services have been largely driven by idealism and energy. In
recent years, with shifting economic, social, and political winds and
changes in institutional structures and practices, we've begun to find
legitimacy and status in the larger realm of librarianship being tested. The
questions of defining, developing, and demonstrating individual compe-
tencies are critical. The tasks are challenging, and the climate is excellent
for accomplishing them the current shortage of youth services librarians
has created a wide awareness of our value, and our leadership is more
widely respected at all levels than we have realized. We must seize the
moment and develop an agenda to:
1. Enlarge and strengthen recruitment efforts.
2. Clarify our definition of essential competencies and establish desired
levels of competence.
3. Deal with the complex issues of professional credentials and
4. Strengthen youth librarians' theoretical base and support advanced
5. Develop better communication, coordination, and planning between
various categories of education providers.
6. Develop and support model programs in library schools, libraries, and
100 Managers and Missionaries
Allen, M. L., & Bush, M. (1987, Winter). Library education and youth services: A survey of fac-
ulty, course offerings and related activities in accredited library schools. Library Trends,
American Association of School Librarians. (1975). Media programs, district and school.
Chicago: American Library Association; and Washington, DC: Association for Educa-
tional Communications and Technology.
Association for Library Services to Children, American Library Association. (1986). Minutes,
ALSC board of directors meetings. ALA Annual Conference.
Berry J. (1986, October 15). The next shortage of librarians. Library Journal, 111 , 4.
Conant, R. W. (1980). The Conant report, a study of the education of librarians. Cambridge,
MA: The MIT Press.
Cresap, M. (1986, August). Kids are rural, too! Rural Library Service Newsletter, 6, 1-4.
Franklin, A. Y. (1984, January). School library media certification requirements: 1984 up-
date. School Library Journal, 30, 21-34.
Hannigan, J. A. (1984). Vision to purpose to power: A quest for excellence in the education of
library and information science professionals. Washington, DC: Office of Educational
Research and Improvement, Center for Libraries and Education Improvement.
Hodges, G. G. (1987, Winter). The future of youth services: Developmental, demographic,
and educational concerns. Top of the News, 43, 167-175.
Learmont, C., & Van Houten, S. (1986, October 15). Placements and salaries 1985: Little
change. Library Journal, 111, 31-38.
Massachusetts Library Association. (1986). Children's services standards. Draft, October.
New York Library Association, Youth Services Section, Task Force on Standards for Youth
Services. (1984). Standards for youth services in public libraries of New York State. New
Richardson, S. K. (1978). An analytical survey of Illinois public library service to children.
Springfield, ILflllinois State Library.
Perritt, P. H., & Heim, K. M. (1987, Winter). ALA-accredited master's degree: Considerations
for youth services librarianship. Top of the News, 43, 149-155.
Simmons College, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. (1986). Placement
statistics for graduates, 1985. New England job vacancies by specialization.
Todaro, J. B., et al. (1985). Children's services inpublic libraries: Research and assessment for
Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Library Association.
Willett, H. G. (1984, Summer). Certification and education for library and information sci-
ence. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 25, 13-23.
Wolfe, T. (1984). The right stuff. New York: Bantam.
Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. (1982, September). Young
adults deserve the best: Competencies for librarians serving youth. School Library Jour-
nal, 29, 51.
Atkinson, J. L. (1983). Library education for young adult specialists. In E. V. LiBretto (Ed.),
New directions for young adult services (pp. 163-79). New York: R. R. Bowker.
Egan, B. ( 1981 , May /June). The role of the children's librarian as a professional librarian: A
position paper. Emergency Librarian, 8(5), 13-16.
Fitzgibbons, S. (1983, Fall). Children's librarianship: The unmet personnel needs. New Jersey
Libraries, 16, 8-17.
Fitzgibbons, S. (1982, May /June). Research on library services for children and young adults:
Implications for practice. Emergency Librarian, 9(5), 6-17.
Recruitment and Education 101
Greer, R. C. (1980). Information transfer: A conceptual model for librarianship, information
science and information management with implications for library education. In Com-
municating information (Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science
conference, Anaheim, CA, 1980) (Vol. 17, pp. 373-75). New York: Knowledge Industry
Kinnell, M. (1986, Spring). Changing childhood?: A state of the art review. International Re-
view of Children's Literature and Librarianship, 7(1), 33-41.
Marland, M. (1986, Spring). Has the school library a future? International Review of Chil-
dren's Literature and Librarianship, 7(1), 1-21.
Parker, A. (1986, Spring). New skills, new opportunities the role of in-service training. In-
ternational Review of Children's Literature and Librarianship, 7(1), 1-21.
Shepherd, J. (1986, Spring). A crisis of confidence: The future of children's work. Interna-
tional Review of Children's Literature and Librarianship, 7(1), 22-32.
Steinfirst, S. (1979). Education of the young adult librarian. In J. V. Rogers (Ed.), Libraries
and young adults: Media, services, and librarianship (pp. 145-64). Littleton, CO: Librar-
Witucki, V. (1979). Another look at theory and practice in library education, and a proposal.
In Frontiers of library service for youth (essays honoring Frances E. Henne) (pp. 1 16-24).
New York: Columbia University, School of Library Service.
JOAN L. ATKINSON
Graduate School of Library Service
University of Alabama
Credentials, Competencies, and Certification
The process of licensing shapes the future of the profession by restricting
entrance to those who meet certain qualifications. Licensing is a gatekeep-
ing function, at least theoretically protecting the public from incompetent
performance. Before we assess where we are and where we hope to be in
relation to this topic, distinctions need to be made among terms.
Credentials is a general term indicating that the holder is duly entitled
to claim a certain status. In librarianship, the M.L.S. degree is often held to
be the requisite credential for entrance into the field. The term competen-
cies is more specific, indicating a listing of abilities and skills, often
task-oriented, that one should possess to be a good practitioner. Certifica-
tion is an endorsement to practice in a specialized area, such as medical or
school librarianship. While these terms apply to individuals, accreditation
applies to educational programs which meet certain standards of quality
and relevance in preparing future practitioners.
Accreditation of programs leading toward the M.L.S. degree is con-
ferred by the American Library Association (ALA). Accreditation of the
more narrowly-focused specialization of school librarianship is a function
of the National Council on Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
and, usually, a state department of education.
The current picture of licensing for the youth specialization is dispa-
rate and dismaying. Youth services librarians are separated into two distinct
groups depending on the environment in which they work i.e., school or
public libraries. Factors related to their establishing competence to prac-
tice focus entirely on their environment rather than on skills and philoso-
phies needed by all. There is virtually no licensing for public library youth
specialists at the local level only at systems or state levels and then only in
certain states. When a credential is required, it is ordinarily the M.L.S.
degree. The local public library, if it has a designated youth specialist at
all, usually hires a person who likes children or young adults, is relatively
outgoing and articulate, and will work for minimum wages or little more.
104 Managers and Missionaries
In the school setting, the certification required at entry level is gener-
ally the same as that for beginning teachers and it is determined state by
state. The 1986-87 edition of Requirements for Certification (Burks, 1986)
and the most recent compilation of this information in School Library
Journal (Franklin, 1984) indicates that wide variation exists in courses of
study, competency testing, level of certification, and nomenclature. To
illustrate, fewer than half the states require a course in children's or young
adult literature for certification. Twenty-three different titles are used for
the school library media specialist. Fewer than ten states require a master's
degree for initial certification.
The disheartening reality is that licensing practices for the youth
specialization separate youth librarians from each other. Of equal impor-
tance, these practices cut them off from the rest of the field of librarianship,
because youth librarians can be, and usually are, certified after completion
of an undergraduate program. Other librarians generally begin to practice
their craft after receiving an M.L.S. degree from a school accredited by the
American Library Association. This important difference in educational
preparation undoubtedly contributes to and exacerbates the feelings of
isolation and inferiority repeatedly expressed by youth specialists (Ballett
& Cornell, 1986).
Standards have traditionally been used to raise the level of service.
They set a minimum level of support for materials, services, and personnel.
Ideally, licensing is related directly or indirectly to these standards. Youth
librarianship does have such standards, but for various reasons they have
lost their power to effect improvements in service.
The most recent public library standards are a 1966 revision of stan-
dards published in 1956 that focused on development of county and
regional library systems (ALA, 1967). Among the weaknesses charged to
these standards are an emphasis on the institution rather than on services,
on input rather than on output measures, lack of challenge for larger
libraries but impossible expectations for small libraries, and requirements
based on opinions of librarians rather than on solid research. These
considerations plus other projects of the Public Library Association (PLA)
during the early 1970s (Lynch, 1982) prepared the way for A Planning
Process for Public Libraries (American Library Association, 1980), a docu-
ment that represents a shift from a single national standard to locally-
The manual provides guidelines to help libraries develop a set of
standards that are appropriate for their community and which reflect their
own philosophy. Since the delivery of this paper, new school library media
standards have been published (ALA & AECT, 1988). The planning pro-
cess has the advantage of involving local groups who will ultimately be
responsible for funding but has the drawback of demanding time-
Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 105
consuming, external participation. Realistically, there are situations in
which a local group simply cannot be sufficiently trained or committed to
carry through an involved planning process. In these cases, standards
structured at the national level could help to identify service goals for local
libraries. Meanwhile, during the last few years, several states have devel-
oped standards or guidelines for services to youth e.g., New York, Virgin-
ia, Illinois, and New Jersey (New York Library Association, 1984; Cram,
1984, p. 91; Illinois Library Association, 1981; New Jersey State Library,
1986). Their impact on services has yet to be assessed, but they offer models
that can be used as ammunition by those in other states hoping to improve
their own services.
In the school setting, the question of standards is a hotly debated issue
this year. James Liesener, chairman of the American Association of School
Librarians (AASL)XAssociation for Educational Communications and
Technology (AECT) Standards Writing Committee, reported to the AASL
Minneapolis Conference audience in September that his committee has an
outline and schedule for their work that will permit a 1987 publication
date for new school library standards (Flagg, 1986).
Of the three most recent sets of school library standards (1960, 1969,
and 1975), those of 1960 are generally considered to have had the greatest
impact and those of 1975 the least. Several factors account for the differ-
ence. The country's economic and social climate in 1960 was right for this
project. A generous grant ($100,000) from the Council on Library Resour-
ces funded a dissemination and publicity campaign for the 1960 Standards.
The Knapp Foundation granted $1,130,000 to fund a nationwide demon-
stration project. A great deal of federal money was available and specifi-
cally earmarked for school library media programs. Many schools greatly
expanded their programs to reflect the 1960 Standards or created them
where none had previously existed. The 1960 Standards seemed attainable,
where the 1975 ones did not. In materials, for example, the 1960 Standards
called for ten books per student, the 1969 Standards mandated twenty
books or audiovisual units, and the 1975 Standards again doubled the
figure, recommending forty items per student. Although the term items is
sufficiently vague to permit some latitude in interpretation, meeting this
standard would nevertheless have been difficult because funding for educa-
tion since 1975 has been less abundant, and retrenchment has become the
norm. One finds schools today whose programs do not even measure up to
the 1960 Standards in terms of resources or staffing. A handout distributed
at AASL's Minneapolis conference highlighting the 1985-86 Survey of
Public School Libraries and Media Centers, reported that 93 percent of
public schools had media centers and that 79 percent were served by a
certified library media specialist part of the time (AASL, 1986).
Another factor in the successful implementation of the 1960 Standards
106 Managers and Missionaries
and the somewhat less successful implementation of the 1969 Standards
was that persons important to their implementation were involved in their
development. Representatives from approximately twenty education
agencies, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Devel-
opment and the Department of Rural Education, were members of advi-
sory committees. No doubt this involvement greatly aided in spreading the
word and marshaling support for the two sets of standards. The 7975
Standards, on the other hand, had no such advisory committee. Dissemina-
tion efforts were mostly restricted to prepublication announcements and
postpublication critiques in library literature. These evaluations found
the standards to be jargon-laden, vague, and incomprehensible. They did
not receive endorsements by state boards of education and have been
generally ignored by everyone except us.
So standards in general have reflected political realities; they have
frequently failed as change agents. Perhaps improvement in the way
standards are created might make them more effective, or perhaps it would
help if someone had a vested interest in implementing them. Or perhaps
standards are not the best means to bring about improvement in service;
and while standards are necessary, they are not sufficient, certainly in
relation to licensing.
There are two major problems with current licensing practices: ( 1 ) the
process is not producing the kind of people doing the kinds of jobs we
want; and (2) the process is not providing the numbers we need to fill
existing positions. As to the first concern, we could all share horror stories,
tales that we would like to think are exaggerated but know are not e.g.,
the team of two school media specialists in one high school who spend six
weeks of the school year doing nothing but writing overdue notices, who
readily admit that they do nothing that could not be done as well by a
bright tenth grader, and who don't care; the public library children's
person whose goal (unstated but real) is never to have any item in the
collection that could be offensive to anyone. Few would argue that youth
librarianship in general has attracted capable, highly motivated practi-
tioners. Ken Haycock (1985) said: "There are still too many teacher-
librarians who are paid professional salaries for being effective
homemakers, book exchangers, and all round martyrs" (p. 108). James
Liesener (1985) also acknowledged that "we are having difficulty attract-
ing the level of talent that we once did" (p. 17). Jane Hannigan (1984),
writing in Libraries and the Learning Society, observed that: "As a field we
seem to accept and tolerate a large measure of rank incompetence in
practice" (p. 31).
Many factors contribute to the difficulty of attracting capable people
to youth librarianship. Financial incentives are comparatively low, as are
status and image. The workplace is often pervaded by infantilism, with
Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 107
little trust, respect, or autonomy bestowed on the youth specialist. Capable
women and ethnic minorities now have options to enter fields formerly
dominated by males and whites and are less likely to settle into education
and librarianship. However, a greater hindrance is the fact that, especially
for youth specialists in the school setting, there is no consensus within
either the library or the school community what their roles should be. The
professional literature, written mostly by library educators, overflows with
convictions about proper roles. Haycock (1985) says: "The very nature of
the role.. .is that of initiator and change agent" (p. 105). Liesener empha-
sizes the mediation function and views the youth specialist as an informa-
tion intermediary. Unfortunately these terms do not communicate a clear
message to prospective students or employers. Philip Turner (1985) has
simplified the terminology and called his book on the role of the school
library media specialist, Helping Teachers Teach (see also "Future of
School Library Media Preparation," 1987).
When school principals do not know the potential of the school media
program, and recent research documents the fact that they do not (Ballet 8c
Cornell, 1986), failure is inevitable. The library may become the caretaker
for students during the teachers' preparation periods, the repository for
driver's education students who cannot all be out driving at one time, or
the rainy day place for anyone who cannot be outside. Teachers, of course,
conclude that the librarian as chief clerk has a soft job, and the youth
specialist's image and status are encoded in stereotypic and stale jokes.
Burnout and mediocrity follow rather naturally.
Evaluation practices contribute to another kind of failure. When basic
competencies lists are compiled, items included too often fail to distin-
guish the librarian's role from the classroom teacher's role, and librarians
fall into the trap of teaching hour after hour of library skills in a vacuum,
out of context, and useless for students' learning. Preparation programs
also receive and deserve a great deal of the criticism for turning out youth
specialists who either do not know or do not care what they are about.
The idea of listing basic competencies for the youth specialist and
setting goals and measuring performance based on the list is not a bad idea.
In fact, if a competency list goes beyond task orientation and includes
attitudes and qualities of personality like empathy and caring, its use can
be very helpful in establishing roles and scope of work for the youth
specialist. The Young Adult Services Division (1982) list, "Competencies
for Librarians Serving Youth," has this potential. It was developed origi-
nally to circulate among library school faculty, to encourage their develop-
ing or identifying courses that would help newly-graduated youth
professionals to have the needed competencies. Happily, this listing has
been found useful by practitioners. The New York Library Association's
Standards for Youth Services in Public Libraries of New York State (1984)
108 Managers and Missionaries
adapted it to include the entire spectrum of youth services and not just
young adult services.
The second problem, that of numbers, is also difficult. Some prepara-
tion programs put a great deal of energy into thinking through the kind of
people they are training and the curriculum they offer, only to have the
system subverted when demand exceeds supply. In a crunch and we
always seem to be in a crunch exceptions to the credentialing system are
made. Poorly-trained and unmotivated people are placed in positions they
will cling to for the rest of their lives.
Rectifying the situation requires a realistic appraisal of the financial
resources that are likely to be available. The theory of wages that our
society has adopted is one that pays handsomely for the professions of
medicine, law, and business on the grounds that medicine protects our life,
law protects our property, and business creates jobs for other people. Other
societies may have similar priorities but allocate resources differently to
reach these goals. For example, an allergy-sufferer in this country con-
sulted a physician who tested her for fifty-two allergies and designed a shot
uniquely for her. When she moved to England, her physician, without any
pretesting, administered a standard shot covering the three most common
allergies. It worked and no further testing was presumed necessary. When
the Chinese in the 1960s asked the question, How shall we improve the
health of our people? the answer was the training of a core of medical
technicians called barefoot doctors who could treat and restore health to a
high percentage of those who were ill.
Our society is apparently unwilling to increase substantially the
funding for education and librarianship. Hence we need to ask the follow-
ing questions. How can resources be allocated differently to provide a more
productive environment for both children and young adults and the youth
librarians who serve them? How can the licensing process be altered to
effect this needed reallocation?
In my opinion the report of The Holmes Group (1986), Tomorrow's
Teachers, a plan for the reform of teacher education, provides a model
which youth librarianship could profitably consider. The Holmes Group
realized that reforming teacher education involves not only colleges of
education but many others i.e., the undergraduate programs of colleges
and universities, the schools in which teachers work, state departments of
education which license teachers, and society's willingness to pay for
improved teaching. The Holmes Group recommendation related to licens-
ing is that a differentiated staffing pattern be established which licenses at
the instructor, professional teacher, and career professional teacher levels.
The latter two credentials require preparation at the graduate level plus
demonstration of effective practice. They are considered professional certi-
fications and are renewable and tenure-earning. The former requires prep-
Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 109
aration at the undergraduate level and passing examinations which test
subject-matter competence. It is not considered a professional certification,
is not renewable or tenure-earning, and does not permit the bearer to
practice autonomously but only to work under the supervision of a career
professional teacher. The reward structure would also be differentiated
monetarily and also in number of opportunities to engage in a variety of
workday activities commensurate with skill, preparation, and interest.
Adapting this model to youth librarianship would involve changes in
many details. A differentiated licensing pattern would, however, recognize
and appropriately reward different levels of commitment, preparation,
and activity. In the school setting the instructor librarian would have an
undergraduate major and tested subject-matter competence in one of the
disciplines of the sciences, social sciences, or humanities. Working under
the supervision of a career professional librarian, the instructor librarian
would carry on a number of activities e.g., some clerical (keeping circula-
tion records), some managerial (supervising student assistants), some
related to reading motivation (reading aloud, storytelling, booktalking),
some to teaching (how to use indexes).
The professional librarian would, in addition to satisfying the
instructor-level requirements, also have a master's degree in librarianship
and would have passed an intellectually defensible competency examina-
tion in that area. The professional librarian would function independently
and would both conduct learning activities with students and consult with
teachers, other support staff, and administrators to plan and design
instructional units. The career professional librarian would have demon-
strated effective performance at the professional librarian level. Through a
combination of further education and identification of interest and ability
in a specialized area such as supervising instructors or practicum stu-
dents, carrying on research, participating with a university in training
librarians the career professional librarian would demonstrate ability to
work in positions of authority in both the library and the school. Activities
of the career professional librarian would emphasize the advocacy role and
include contacts with students, teachers, administrators, universities, state
departments of education, and other community and professional policy-
One of the advantages of a differentiated licensing process is its ability
to respond to the disequilibrium between supply and demand. At present,
shortages in qualified personnel result in lowering standards and admit-
ting the poorly-trained to permanent positions. The differentiated pattern
would allow filling vacancies at the instructor level. If the person hired
wished to become a professional, there would be a period of years during
which the appropriate training could take place. If the person did not
make a commitment to the profession, the certificate would expire after
110 Managers and Missionaries
five years and employment would be terminated. Taxpayers might be
spared some expensive mistakes. The process also has the potential to
encourage commitment to and investment in the profession by talented
persons who desire some occupational mobility and choice. Their
expanded career opportunities and rewards would cut down on the ten-
dency to settle into boredom or unexamined routines and would provide
incentives for continued growth and development of diverse interests.
In the public library setting the differentiated licensing pattern would
need to take into account the size, demography, and funding of the local
public library plus other factors related to public library development. It is
nevertheless desirable for the Public Library Association in cooperation
with the Association for Library Service to Children and the Young Adult
Services Division all divisions of the American Library Association to
formulate a differentiated credentialing process that recognizes current
reality and at the same time challenges communities to improve youth
services. The professional certification for children's or young adult librar-
ians should continue to be the M.L.S. degree, as Perritt and Heim (1987)
have reiterated persuasively. For those individuals for whom this certifica-
tion is impossible to acquire, or for those communities who cannot afford
to pay for the professional certification, there needs to be an equivalent to
the barefoot doctor training and certification. (I hesitate to call this the
barefoot youth specialist certification, though the nomenclature may fit
the salary scale!) Some service is preferable to no service for young people
who live in rural, small, or poor communities (Vavrek, 1982).
Two major problems affect current licensing practices for youth
1 . The process has not produced the kind of people doing the kind of jobs
that are needed.
2. The process has not provided the numbers needed to fill existing
Solutions to these problems cannot address the licensing process
alone; they must involve a systems approach, analyzing the total environ-
ment in which youth specialists work. Licensing is influenced by prepara-
tion programs, accrediting agencies, state boards of education, state law,
national standards, success or failure of those already licensed, the work-
place, research, and costs at all levels.
The actions that could result in more effective credentialing practices
are as multifaceted as the problems. These are:
1 . Develop national and state standards or guidelines for youth services in
both school and public libraries. These documents must articulate
Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 1 1 1
clearly what the program of services intends to accomplish and what
roles the youth librarian needs to assume. These documents must
eschew obfuscation. They must be straightforward and free of jargon so
that we can coalesce around them and use them to spread the word to the
uninformed or uncommitted.
Examine ways to improve the quality of the product i.e., the youth
librarian. This examination should include scrutiny of what goes into
the training process (input measures) and what is produced (output
measures). Accreditation practices should screen programs and func-
tion as a gatekeeper at the input level. Competency testing at the output
stage should assure the individual's achievement of a minimum level of
knowledge and expertise.
Is there a way to toughen the accreditation requirements for pro-
grams that train youth librarians without raising the cost of accredita-
tion to an exorbitant level? Single-purpose programs that train school
library media specialists range from the poorest to the best available
preparation. Should ALA or AASL be responsible for accreditation of
these programs rather than NCATE, or should ALA/ AASL investigate
ways to participate in the NCATE accreditation reviews? How can
ALA's own Committee on Accreditation (CO A) be persuaded to scru-
tinize more closely the quality of training youth specialists receive in
general-purpose ALA-accredited M.L.S. programs? Is an attempt to get
more youth librarians appointed to COA site visitation teams worth the
Competency testing has often been a joke, failing to discriminate
between the fit and the unfit. A highly charged political issue, it has
unfortunately pitted professional educators against state government
officials over who shall determine the proper credentials for those
entering the profession (The Alabama Librarian, 1982, p. 4). With
appropriate research applied to test construction and validation, how-
ever, the adequacy and fairness of such tests could be established, and
they could contribute to protecting the public from an inferior product.
Work toward a differentiated staffing and licensing pattern that
obviates the current practice of hiring poorly trained personnel for
permanent positions when demand exceeds supply. The Holmes
Group report, Tomorrow's Teachers, may serve as a model because:
(a) it is relatively free of professional jargon and communicates to an
educated reader from any discipline; and (b) there are many parallels
between teaching and youth librarianship, including generally low
professional status and image, licensing at the undergraduate level, and
the importance of youth advocacy.
Speak with a strong, unified voice from national professional
112 Managers and Missionaries
associations, especially among the three youth divisions of the
American Library Association.
Issues related to licensing persons to practice a profession that affects
the public good are inevitably complex and confounding. Licensing for
youth librarianship fits the pattern. The future is likely to present a
labyrinth, not a paved highway for our convenience. Like Theseus in the
labyrinth of the Cretan King Minos, we need courage, imagination,
shrewd planning, and belief in ourselves if we are to be victorious. The
three youth divisions of the American Library Association are poised to
adventure, accepting the ambiguities of the task, and hanging on, as
Theseus did to Ariadne's thread, for dear life.
American Association of School Librarians. (1986). Highlights of the 1985-86 survey of pub-
lic school libraries and media centers-early tabulations. Chicago: ALA.
American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communica-
tions and Technology. (1975). Media programs: District and School. Chicago: ALA.
American Library Association. American Association of School Librarians. (1960). Stan-
dards for school library programs. Chicago: ALA.
American Library Association and National Education Association. (1969). Standards for
school media programs. Chicago: ALA.
American Library Association. Public Library Association. (1967). Minimum standards for
public library systems, 1966. Chicago: ALA, PLA.
Ballet, R. M., & Cornell, R. A. (1986). Professionalizing our profession: Twentieth-century
countdown. In S. L. Aaron & P. R. Scales (Eds.), School library media annual 1986 (pp.
173-82). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Burks, M. P. ( 1 986). Requirements for certification for elementary schools, secondary schools,
junior colleges (51st Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cram, L. (1984, Fall). Young adult services guidelines for Virginia. Public Libraries, 23, 91.
Flagg, G. (1986, November). Standards status. American Libraries, 17, 740.
Franklin, A. Y.(1984, January). School library media certification requirements: 1984 update.
School Library Journal, 30, 23-28.
Hannigan, J. A. (1984). Vision to purpose to power: A quest for excellence in the education of
library and information science professionals. In Libraries and the learning society:
Papers in response to "A nation at risk" (pp. 22-62). Chicago: American Library
Haycock, K. (1985, Spring). Strengthening the foundations for teacher-librarianship. School
Library Media Quarterly, 13^, 102-109.
The Holmes Group. (1986). Tomorrow's teachers. East Lansing, MI: The Holmes Group.
Illinois Library Association. Children's Librarians Section. (1981). Foundations of quality:
Guidelines for public library service to children. Chicago: Illinois Library Association.
Liesener, J. W. (1985, Fall). Learning at risk: School library media programs in an informa-
tion world. School Library Media Quarterly, 14, 11-20.
Lynch, M. J. (1982). The Public Library Association and public library planning. Journalof
Library Administration, 2, 30-40.
New Jersey State Library. Children's Services in Public Libraries. Guidelines Committee.
(1986). Guidelines for children's services in public libraries of New Jersey. Trenton, NJ:
New Jersey State Library.
New York Library Association. (1984). Standards for youth sennces in public libraries in New
York State. New York: New York Library Association, Task Force on Standards for Youth
Services, Youth Services Sec tion.
Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 113
Perritt, P. H., fc Heim, K. M. (1987, Winter). ALA-accredited master's degree: Considerations
for youth services librarianship. Top of the News, 43.
Turner, P. M. (1985). Helping teachers teach. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Vavrek, B. (1982, April). Profession needs a new entry level: Non-MLS workers in rural li-
braries are isolated from the mainstream. American Libraries, 13, 271-272.
Young Adult Services Division. Education Committee. (1982, September). Competencies for
librarians serving youth. School Library Journal, 29, 51.
1. The Fall 1984 issue of the Journal of Education for Library and Information Science
reports the proceedings of a 1984 ALISE conference, which was devoted to the topic of
accreditation. Whether ALA should accredit programs other than those leading to the M.L.S.
degree was one of the many questions considered. The tremendous costs involved in accredita-
tion no doubt deter ALA from broadening its current accreditation program.
2. Alabama is one of the states which has had a bitter confrontation over this question.
See The Alabama Librarian, November 1982, p. 4, and September 1983, p. 1 for details.
Director, Professional Development Studies
School of Communication, Information & Library Studies
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Continuing Education: Providing
for Change, Renewal, and Growth
Why should this Allerton Institute on library services for children and
young adults include a session on continuing education (CE)? Are there
different issues and problems associated with CE for youth services librar-
ians than for librarians in general? If so, what are they? The task today is to
explore these questions, to identify the concerns about CE, and, if agree-
ment is reached on some specific conclusions, to contribute to the "Youth
Agenda" which will be formulated at the conclusion of the conference.
From the perspective of one who administers a continuing education
program which seeks to serve professionals in all types of libraries, media,
and information centers, one answer to the questions just posed is no the
basic issues and problems relating to continuing education are not very
different, whether one is talking about school librarians or directors of
public libraries or online searchers in industry. There are differences in
degree, however, and therefore the answer to the question, should we be
talking about CE for youth librarians specifically, is yes. In fact, a case can
be made to support the contention that youth librarians are singularly
disadvantaged in regard to continuing education.
What are the problems which seem to be pervasive and to cut across
types of positions and libraries? When looking at the complaints people
have about continuing education, they really come from two categories of
complainers. The first is a group that could be called the consumer
individuals who have an interest in their own professional development
but have difficulty finding learning opportunities that match their needs
and expectations. They complain with justification that it is hard to
discover what is being offered, that little of what can be identified is
relevant to their particular need at that moment, that much of what is
available is superficial or poorly done, that the cost in time and money is
too high, and that the encouragement and rewards that ought to accrue to
the CE participant are not forthcoming.
1 16 Managers and Missionaries
The second group of complainers comprises a motley assemblage of
CE providers, library administrators, educators, and professional
profession- watchers who again with considerable justification blame
the would-be or should-be CE consumers for failing to make enough of an
effort to seek out learning opportunities, to take responsibility for their
own learning, to be discriminating in their selection of CE activities, to
play the Typhoid Mary role as Regina Minudri calls it by sharing what
has been learned with colleagues back home, and especially for failing to
demonstrate on the job that CE can make a difference in performance and
ultimately in the quality of service for the library user.
Sometimes it seems that the profession is content with this standoff,
with each camp feeling it has accomplished something by diagnosing the
problem and pointing the finger at the other side. To be fair, during the
last ten years there has been progress in recognizing the importance of
providing for CE within the overall system of planning for the develop-
ment of libraries and librarianship. Many states have included CE in
statewide planning. The Continuing Library Education Network and
Exchange (CLENE) has created much greater awareness of and has facili-
tated communication and support for CE. It has worked to improve CE by
developing criteria for quality and a voluntary provider approval system.
ALA's Committee on Library Education (SCOLE) has recently established
a CE subcommittee, which is cooperating with CLENE (now a round table
of ALA) in an effort to have ALA approve the CLENE CE quality criteria
as ALA guidelines. SCOLE is working to improve headquarters' support
for an association-wide CE role. Such support could help AASL, ALSC,
and YASD to serve better the CE needs of their members.
In an article which will be published in the forthcoming Winter issue
of Top of the News (Varlejs, 1987), it is argued that the ALA youth
divisions should be doing much more in the area of continuing education,
but that they cannot do what is needed without help from the association as
a whole. In order to get help, they will have to form a coalition and fight for
Very briefly, this is the argument. Despite the good job the divisions
do with offering programming at conferences, the impact is not very great
because few practioners attend, at least relative to their total numbers.
Publications, cassettes, and now videotapes reach a wider audience and are
enormously useful in helping librarians to keep up to date and to continue
learning at their own pace at little cost and inconvenience. Praiseworthy as
all these services are, however, they fall far short of what should be availa-
ble considering the great number of things a youth services librarian needs
to know and do. Moreover, the disparity in basic preparation is quite large,
and therefore one has to keep in mind the needs of practitioners who have
few, if any, courses in materials and library services for youth. This is not as
Continuing Education 1 1 7
serious a problem for school as for public librarians because of certifica-
tion requirements but there is still enormous variation in the entry-level
preparation. In New Jersey, for example, it is possible to be certified as an
educational media specialist i.e., school librarian if one has a masters
in educational media. Most of the people who hold this degree have never
had a course in cataloging nor in children's literature.
In addition to these remedial and survival CE needs, there is a third
level which might be called the parachute category. Career ladders for
youth librarians are limited, but there are some rungs which allow
increased responsibility without having to leave the specialty positions
such as system or regional coordinator or consultant (which require a new
set of skills).
Given these several categories and different levels, not to mention the
considerable overlap with education and with child and adolescent devel-
opment, listing all the knowledge, skill, and attitude areas that CE for
youth services librarians ought to cover becomes a formidable task. If one
did take a few weeks to develop the list and then matched it against what is
actually being offered not just by ALA but throughout the country by
local associations, state library agencies, library schools, and other
providers one would end up with a very lopsided list. Judging from
calendars of events published in some of the widely read journals, most CE
identified as designed for youth services librarians is either book or micro-
What is available, or at least that which is easily identified as available,
simply is not enough. There is very little on planning or evaluating
services, on child or adolescent development, on managing a school library
or public library youth services department in a retrenchment era, on how
children process information, or on the role of reading in an electronic age.
In this last statement is the implication that knowledge of how chil-
dren process information, for example, is indeed important for youth
services librarians, and that it therefore constitutes a CE need. How can one
say that? Has there been a valid and reliable study of a randomly selected
sample of practitioners? No, but it is possible to perceive the increasing
interest in children's information processing by browsing through the
literature, talking with people, attending conferences, and keeping an eye
on what is going on in the world at large to note new ideas and social
phenomena which might have implications for librarians. These are legit-
imate ways for a CE provider to do CE needs assessment. It is not scientific
and rigorous, but it does keep one alert to the changing environment so
that needs can be anticipated and new learning activities can be ready at the
moment that a particular need is just beginning to crystallize. It is a way of
trying to nudge the profession forward, to help it be proactive rather than
118 Managers and Missionaries
But this way of doing CE needs assessment by hunch should never
stand alone it should supplement the basic and most essential kinds of
needs assessment that each librarian must do for herself, using the best
available checklists of competencies for the position she holds. The school
library field has the Case and Lowrey Behavioral Requirements Analysis
Checklist (Case, 1973); YASD has produced a list of competencies for YA
librarians (American Library Association, 1982); and the New York
Library Association has adapted the YASD list so that children's librarians
can also use it (Young, 1985). In this regard, the youth services library field
is ahead of most of the profession.
However, as suggested at the outset, youth librarians can be seen as
suffering certain disadvantages in continuing their education. As has
already been concluded, what is offered does not match the range of needs.
Not mentioned as yet are the problems caused by the relative isolation of
youth services librarians, and the effect this has on their ability to take
strong action to improve their access to appropriate CE. For the most part,
the school librarian is the only librarian in his/her school, and often in
his/her town. This is certainly also true of the children's librarian. As for
the YA librarian, if there is one, she or he probably is the only one of the
species for many miles around. In the typical situation, there are not
enough people to form the sized group which makes the traditional work-
shop or short course format viable. Self-assessment and self-directed learn-
ing are almost the only routes available.
On the other hand, because they have made good progress toward
identifying the competencies required for their specialties, youth services
librarians are in a good position to define the content of the CE "curricu-
lum" which they need. In addition, because they know that their col-
leagues throughout the country are often isolated from their peers and
from professional support groups, underpaid and overworked, they can be
quite confident in recommending that this curriculum needs to be very
portable, flexible, and affordable. It will not do much good if it is offered
once a year in Chicago or wherever ALA is meeting. This curriculum must
be available on loan, in formats varied to suit the topic and different
individual learning styles, paced for self-study but adaptable for small
groups, geared to beginners as well as advanced learners.
If one thinks about what it would take to develop this kind of "mail-
order" CE, it has to be admitted that it would require a very large invest-
ment in resources to develop and maintain. No single state library agency,
library school, state professional association, or ALA division by itself is
likely to have the staff and money required. If the profession really wants
this kind of program, a way to pool resources has to be found. ALA is the
only organization which is big enough to harbor such an effort. The youth
services divisions of ALA have usually felt themselves to be underdogs
Continuing Education 119
within the ALA power structure. This need not be the case if they form a
strong alliance and work toward specific objectives which will benefit the
profession at large as well as youth services. Working for an agenda that
calls for stronger support from the organization for the CE efforts of the
divisions seems be an effective way to exercise some clout to good effect.
The idea of mail-order CE has potential for alleviating the inadequate
supply of CE for youth services librarians. It is felt, however, that interac-
tion is essential, and that solitary self-directed learning cannot be the only
mode. A great deal is gained from discussion with others in groups. Uses of
new technology to bridge distance and permit interaction should be
ALA should experiment with several learning packages to test the
response. There should be programs for paraprofessionals as well as for
professionals. A possible model might be the learning modules recently
developed for staff training in the Area 2 Library Services Authority in
Indiana. Another model is the CE course by Jane Robbins-Carter and
Douglas Zweizig which ran in American Libraries from October 1985
through February 1986.
In addition to the facilitating of programs and packages, ALA should
ensure better communication and an enlarged clearinghouse function for
CE. There should be more exchange of information about existing pro-
grams and resources which could be shared if people knew about them.
American Library Association. Young Adult Services Division. Education Committee. (1982,
September). Young adults deserve the best: Competencies for librarians serving youth.
School Library Journal, 29, 51.
Case, R. N., fc Lowrey, A. M. (1973). Behavioral requirements analysis checklist: A compila-
tion of competency-based job functions and task statements for school library media
personnel. Chicago: American Library Association.
Varlejs, J. (1987, Winter). Continuing education for youth services librarians: A diagnosis
and prescription. Top of the News, 43, 193-202.
Young, D. (1985, Spring). Standards for the library, for the librarian. Public Libraries, 24,
MARGARET MARY KIMMEL
University of Pittsburgh
School of Library and Information Science
Halos and Pitchforks: Questions about
Librarians Serving Youth
All occupations are worthy of study, a fact documented by many since
Robert Park's classic research on the hobo, the taxi-dance-hall girl, and the
professional thief. Librarianship, too, has been subjected to in-depth
analysis on everything from the personality of the librarian to questions
about the attributes of the profession. The subspecialty of work with
young people has recently been subjected to much scrutiny, primarily
because there is such a need for specialists in schools and public libraries at
the entry level.
Some claim that this shortage is due to a failure of professional
education. Others point to low pay and lower status accorded to those who
work with children. Both factors are undoubtedly significant, but some
others, such as job satisfaction, should be considered. Whether sorting clay
tablets or entering items onto OCLC, it has always been the librarian's
belief that the job being done was important. Preserving the culture,
offering the great works of literature to the masses, or organizing the
contributions of Fred Rogers have been tasks in which one could take some
pride. But now there would appear to be some confusion about those tasks
and just how meaningful they are, especially as they relate to young
Another consideration may be related to the changing role of women
in society at large. Because organizational patterns in schools and public
libraries are shifting, fewer managerial positions are provided within the
subspecialty. This is occurring at a time when women are selecting more
diversified occupational choices within and outside of librarianship.
These and other questions need study as we consider directions that
information service to young people might take. It is the purpose of this
discussion to explore some of the issues which affect the provision of such
service. Are there factors within the profession which are drawing entry
122 Managers and Missionaries
level individuals to other service areas? Is it a crisis at the entry level only or
are other aspects of the service also in trouble? What are the social issues
beyond those of professional concern affecting this subspecialty?
Other Professional Subspecialties
Career patterns of women in a variety of occupational groups provide
interesting but inconclusive evidence about their provision of service to
young people. It is predicted that by 1990 at least "75 percent of children
will have both parents working outside the home" (Brazelton, 1985, p.
xviii). Now the working woman has a choice of occupations far broader
than the traditional "feminized professions." Other occupational oppor-
tunities may have drawn away potential candidates from a predominately
female subspecialty like service to children.
In law, for instance, family law practice draws many women. Of the
Family Law Section of the American Bar Association, 26 percent are
female, a fact consistent with the "widely held opinion that female lawyers
tend to concentrate in those fields of law dealing with the problems of
individuals" (Smith, 1983, p. 241 ). Furthermore, women are more likely to
hold positions outside the private practice of law and, therefore, are less
likely to be associated with law firms of any size.
In medicine, pediatrics has long been the favored specialty of women
medical graduates. In a recent study of specialty preferences at five medical
schools, males had higher preferences for high risk procedures and patients
at risk while women students scored higher in a preference for handling
preventive care and patient responsibility and participation. Of the six
major medical subspecialties, the top three choices for women were:
(1) ob/gyn, (2) pediatrics, and (3) internal medicine. For men the choices
were: ( 1 ) internal medicine, (2) family practice, and (3) surgery (Cuca, 1979,
p. 429). Implications of these and several other studies suggest that the re-
cent influx of women has not substantially altered career patterns of
Women in medicine with home and family responsibilities are more
likely to choose subspecialties which relate to their identification as nur-
turer as well as healer. These subspecialties often have distinctions in such
areas as hours of service and salary that are markedly different. Pediatri-
cians, for instance, in 1984 earned less than half of what anesthesiologists
did. In the years between 1974 and 1984, salaries of psychiatrists doubled
while pediatricians showed only about a 5 percent increase in income. The
only subspecialty with more patient contact hours per week is family/ gen-
eral practice (Reynolds & Duann, 1985, pp. 60, 70, 123). These differences,
however, are true for both male and female pediatricians and may reflect
more about the status of the client than the gender of the pediatrician.
Questions About Librarians Serving Youth 123
In the ministry, the role of women is even more controversial. In an
article in the Journal of Public and International Affairs, the Rev. Beryl
Choi (1983) states unequivocally:
Although female members far outnumber males in the Christian Church, though
for thousands of years women have been the nurturing foundation of their
people the very essence of community they have been, in that community of
religious faith, a disenfranchised group. The barriers to power and prestige for
women in the Church, though not absolute, are certainly ubiquitous and ancient.
Women in many of the Christian churches have been relegated to the
role of educator with little voice in policy and certainly no voice in
theology. The role of religious educator is a significant one, but in terms of
growth and change, a lack of involvement in policy and theology may
restrict development. In the first decade of the twentieth century, 8 million
immigrants landed at Ellis Island, many of them Roman Catholics. The
education provided for many of these new arrivals was developed by a cadre
of religious who were "the sacrificial and hidden asset of the whole system"
(Hesburg, 1986, p. 161 ). The only words more frequently heard than "Look
it up in the card catalog" were "but Sister said." Yet today, vocations in the
religious orders are down and many regard church schools as merely a
relatively inexpensive private school rather than a religious educational
What do these questions about the role of women in the traditional
professions have to do with information services for young people? Per-
haps the most significant factor is that librarianship is not alone in
wondering where to find new recruits for new services. Many other occupa-
tional groups have difficulty identifying entry level professionals for pub-
lic service jobs dealing with youth. With the choice of careers more
diversified for women, there are questions about the value placed on those
occupations dealing with children and young people. Even larger ques-
tions relate to the value placed on the children themselves, who serves
them, and who sets the policies that regulate the services.
The second major factor in the development of a cadre of trained
professionals working with young people deals with the nature and philo-
sophy of those agencies providing the service. It is here that school and
public library people should be drawing together. Both institutions oper-
ate in the public, not-for-profit sector vying with other agencies battling
for limited money to provide essential services. Instead, cooperative efforts
often go astray. Networks exclude one or the other; territorial squabbles
occupy time that would be better spent on work with young people. The
current fuss about what age group is served by which division in the
American Library Association is an example of such behavior.
The shifts in organizational structure in both schools and public
124 Managers and Missionaries
libraries also affect youth services specialists. The generalist approach
provided some children's and young adult librarians with opportunities to
advance as "program specialists" or "information managers." The
approach, however, often failed to provide the entry-level positions which
led to the cadre of specialists able and willing to transfer their skills from
dealing with children to dealing with board members or city managers. In
schools, many middle managers have also been eliminated. This not only
affects programs, creating a situation where there is no direction or plan-
ning, but it also means that, to advance, there is no place to go but out of
Librarians Serving Youth
Several studies recently have been conducted examining aspects of
education and the new professional. Both Fasick (1986, p. 613) and
Immroth (1987, p. 210) have considered the entry level professional and
found that, in general, most people in library school have some kind of
library work experience. While this makes classroom participation lively
("We do it this way in my library"), it may also mean that we are not
recruiting widely enough. A typical career pattern follows an individual
from page to clerk to library school. Incoming M.L.S. students at the Uni-
versity of Pittsburgh report an average of three years of library work expe-
rience before graduate school.
There is another problem in "growing" replacements. The library
profession has approximately 12 percent minority professionals in public
libraries (Guy, 1986, p. 5). As population shifts occur and minorities
become in fact majorities, there are fewer and fewer professionals to serve as
role models. Although a study of population growth indicates a strong
increase in the number of black and Hispanic children, there is no indica-
tion of a similar growth in numbers of black and Hispanic librarians.
On the other hand, there is strong evidence that many people who
work with children do not have any professional education. In a survey of
children's librarians just released by the Library Research Center at the
University of Illinois, 88 percent of the sample had some college education,
but only 50 percent had any library education. Less than half of the 50
percent had completed the M.L.S. (Roy, 1986, p. 47). These figures are
substantiated by preliminary results of a study of Pennsylvania librarians
serving children which indicates that outside of metropolitan systems, it is
likely that a volunteer or clerk will be providing service to children.
More than half of the public libraries in the United States serve
populations under 10,000. These small rural libraries usually have some
kind of service for children and young people but with little quality
control. Collections are poorly maintained and "craft programs" abound.
Questions About Librarians Serving Youth 125
The profession must wrestle with the question of whether to write off such
efforts and worry only about "professional service" or take the responsibil-
ity for including those who will never get a graduate degree. Continuing
education programs that offer only the practice and not one whit of
philosophy of service perpetuate the system.
Libraries without youth specialists who have the first professional
degree are not confined to rural areas, however. In tight times, administra-
tors often felt they were unable to afford expensive professionals to work
with children and young people. College graduates (or even those with less
education) were hired to fill vacancies and cut down on personnel costs.
Some major city systems have begun to build back their professional staff,
but the process is a long one. Advertisements for children's librarians are
widely circulated, but the role models aren't there. Neither are the new
Many have voiced concern over the failure of library schools to provide
faculty and courses in services to children. It is true that some schools have
dropped such specializations. But higher education, especially profes-
sional education, is market driven. When the demand for courses is pre-
sent, the courses are offered. Information is big business and provides a
seemingly endless job market for today's pragmatic student. The demand
for courses and even a shift in the curriculum from one dominated by
public libraries and public schools to one reflecting largely private sector
employment is the result of many factors, not the least of which is student
It is unrealistic to assume that higher education administrators are
any more altruistic or high minded than their counterparts in the corpo-
rate world. Providing the professionals to work with children and young
people in schools and public libraries is costly and time consuming, carries
little status, and provides few millionaire alumni. Furthermore, it is hard
to find qualified faculty to teach, research, and serve the community. There
are relatively few children's specialists in doctorate programs around the
country. The time is past when one's reputation alone will provide a
tenured slot in a school of library and information science. Those individ-
uals who are already a part of faculties need all our help and support. They
need to be invited to give formal papers at conferences. They need the
cooperation of libraries to act as field sites for their research. They need
recognition by their peers in the field because it is lonely in that ivory tower
where the only thing that colleagues agree on is a concern over parking.
Being a youth services specialist, however, still has its rewards. The
children are responsive, even starved for stories. We have more media and
126 Managers and Missionaries
materials available. Technology can enhance the richness of color in
picture books and provide your favorite encyclopedia on a video disc. The
job is challenging and exciting and not very well paid.
Job satisfaction is, of course, tied to more than salary. There is a need
for growth in responsibility and scope. For some youth service librarians
there is a perceived lack of opportunity, however. Librarians report that
they not only view the job as "dead-end" but feel unqualified for further
responsibility. This perception is contradicted by reports which indicate
that managerial skills are transferable and that controlling preschoolers at
a story hour is related to working with a board of trustees, at least to some
degree. Furthermore, many middle and upper level administrators in
public library systems began as youth services specialists. State librarians,
library directors, even university professors and deans began their careers
by lighting candles at story hours and designing summer reading certifi-
cates and talking to local PTAs.
These problems at the entry level present a challenge to those engaged
in this business of putting children and ideas and learning and reading
together. There are societal concerns that deal with the status of our group
as a female intensive occupation. Internally, the profession is in the midst
of a profound realignment. Many are struggling to protect the right of
citizens to information access in a society that sees information as a
commodity. Children and their needs are often marginalized or so rigidly
proscribed that professional growth is stifled. Yet we are intrigued by the
potential of our work. Our job satisfaction comes from knowing that the
job we do does make a difference. The communication of that satisfaction
should be wider than the staff room discussion of what went on at story
hour. We need to mount an active, vigorous recruitment effort, directed
especially at minorities.
We need to look carefully at the continuing education activities pro-
vided by professional associations as well as colleges and universities.
Meeting the creators of words and pictures is entertaining, sometimes
enlightening, but should not be the extent of our efforts. We must provide
opportunities to debate the direction of the service we provide, to consider
the philosophy behind what we do.
Finally, it is significant to note that in the Illinois study, 97 percent of
the respondents declared that if they had to start over, they would choose
the same job again (Roy, 1986, p. 63). Professional problems abound, but
interest and commitment is evident. Librarians who work with young
people should be awarded halos not pitchforks.
Questions About Librarians Serving Youth 127
American Library Association. Office of Library Personnel Resources. (1986). Academic and
public librarians: Data by race, ethnicity and sex. Chicago: ALA.
Brazelton, T. B. (1985). Working and caring. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Choi, B. T. (1982, Fall/Winter). Power and religion: The institutional church. Journal of
Public and International Affairs, 3, 33.
Cuca, J. M. (1979, November). The specialization and career preferences of women and men
recently graduated from U.S. medical schools. Journal of the American Medical Women's
Association, 34, 429.
Fasick, A. (1986, Spring). Library and information science students. Library Trends, 34(4),
Hesburg, T. M. (1986, October 4). Catholic education in America. America, 755, 161.
Immroth, B. (1987, Winter). Repopulating an endangered species: The issues and literature of
recruitment. Top of the News, 43(2), 206-216.
Reynolds, R., & Duann, D. J. (Eds.). (1985). Socioeconomic characteristics of medical prac-
tice, 1985. Chicago: American Medical Association.
Roy, L. (1986, October). A survey of children's librarians in Illinois public libraries. Illinois
Library and Information Statistical Report No. 21. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University
of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.
Smith, K.; Troha, M.; et al. (1983, Fall). A survey of the membership of the ABA section of
family law. Family Law Quarterly, 17, 24.
HELEN LLOYD SNOKE
School of Library Science
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
What Library Schools Offer that School
Library Media Specialists and Youth
Services Librarians Need
When asked to speak at this conference on the topic, "What Library
Schools Offer that School Library Media Specialists and Youth Services
Librarians Need," it was decided that personal experience needed to be
supplemented with curriculum revision at Michigan and with the rather
sketchy knowledge of what some colleagues at other universities are doing
in library education for youth services with current information from other
programs. Many library school catalogs, including Michigan's, did not
reflect the most recent developments, and the professional literature
seemed to focus more on what is not being done rather than what is being
An urgent plea along with a brief questionnaire, "Educational Pro-
grams for Librarians Who Work With Youth," was sent in September 1986
to a representative of each U.S. institutional member of the Association of
Library and Information Science Educators (ALISE). Both regular and
associate members were included in the survey. In most cases the represen-
tatives were persons designated as having graduate specializations in
library service for children and young adults and/ or school library media
programs, as reported in the Journal of Education for Library and Infor-
mation Science directory issue, 1985-86. In spite of the short time frame and
busy schedules, fifty-two of the seventy institutions contacted (74 percent)
sent responses. Findings are presented in Table 1.
Table 1 shows that forty-nine of the fifty-two institutions responding
(94 percent) have curriculum plans or concentrations for those preparing
at the graduate level to be school library media specialists. Forty-one (79
percent) reported having curriculum plans or concentrations for youth
services in public libraries. One might wonder whether failure to respond
meant that those institutions do not have programs in either of these areas.
130 Managers and Missionaries
INSTITUTIONS WITH GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH SERVICES
Have Do Not Have
Number Percentage Number Percentage
School Library Media Curriculum Plan 49 94 3 6
Public Library Youth Services Curric. Plan 41 79 11 21
N = 52 Institutions
That should not be assumed, however. Several are known to have speciali-
zations in school library media and/ or in public library services for youth
and have faculty who have expertise in these fields.
Fifty institutions answered questions on number of faculty, full and
part time, who teach courses related to library services for youth in school
or public libraries. The number of full-time faculty reported ranges from
zero to seven, and for part-time faculty, from zero to twenty. No institution
reported zero for both full- and part-time faculty. Whether or not they have
concentrations in youth services, all institutions represented in the survey
have one or more faculty members with expertise in this field. Although
two of the respondents stated philosophical commitments to adjunct
faculty who are library practitioners, many others seemed to prefer a
balance between full-time faculty who'have the responsibility to develop
curriculum, conduct research, and counsel students as well as to teach, and
the practitioner or doctoral student with recent experience in the field.
Forty-four institutions responded to the question: Approximately
what percent of those who graduated from your program within the past
two years have been employed in public library youth services or in school
library media programs? The range was 5 percent to 100 percent with a
mean percentage of 40.7. The median was 30 percent and responses were
tri-modal (10, 30, and 33 percent). However, if the eight institutions which
are virtually single purpose (those reporting that 90 percent or more of
their graduates have been placed in school or public library youth services
positions) were excluded, the mean for the remaining thirty-six would be
28.4 percent and the median would be 26.5 percent. For a majority of
library schools responding, more than one-fourth of their graduates have
been placed in school or public library youth services positions within the
past two years.
Program requirements, in addition to the courses required for all
graduates, differ from one institution to another, but there are consistent
strands to be found. For school library media concentrations, administra-
tion of media programs; literature or materials for children and young
adults (sometimes with several courses specified in this area); the teaching
What Library Schools Offer 131
or curriculum role of the library media specialist; design, production, and
use of audiovisual media; computer literacy; and a practicum were often
For a concentration in public library youth services, the number of
required courses is usually less although library programs and services for
children and young adults, literature or materials for children and young
adults (several courses may be specified in this area), and a practicum are
often listed. Design, production, and use of audiovisual media and micro-
computers in libraries were frequent additions.
Some other required courses for students preparing to be youth ser-
vices librarians in school or public library settings were listed by one or
more institutions: planning information systems for children and young
adults, oral programming for libraries, public library interagency cooper-
ation, psychology of childhood and adolescence, multicultural librarian-
ship, information transfer and children, communication and learning
theory, inner city seminar, and teaching of reading. Most of the electives
listed were variations of children's literature e.g., information books for
children, fantasy books for children, folklore and storytelling, multicul-
tural literature for youth, contemporary literature for children, criticism of
children's literature, history and development of literature for children,
media for minorities, topics in literature for children and young adults
(with variation from term to term), puppetry, and bibliotherapy. Another
elective of interest was computer coordination for media centers.
One respondent cautioned against too much emphasis on special
courses for youth services librarians. Many of the courses in a library school
curriculum look at the information needs of youth as part of a larger
perspective, she noted. She suggested that a content analysis of all courses
offered would be a better way of determining what library schools are
offering that youth services librarians need. It is indeed a point well taken
although the task is beyond the scope of this survey.
A recent curriculum revision at The University of Michigan was
developed by determining the essential content (competencies, skills,
knowledge) for all graduate students in the program and then the addi-
tional content needed by those in each of the special curriculum plans
offered. This planning process resulted in a number of new courses and a
restructuring of most remaining ones. The faculty, working together over
time on this revision, reaffirmed that, to a considerable extent, information
professionals of all kinds have need for common learnings.
We found that several of the special emphases which had made school
library media programs different varied media, the understanding of
technology necessary for their use, and even the instructional role of the
librarian have been mainstreamed by the profession. For example, a new
course at Michigan, "Design of Information Products," adapted from a
132 Managers and Missionaries
course in instructional development which has been taken almost exclu-
sively by students in the school library media concentration, was praised
recently as highly desirable for students preparing for their own specializa-
tions by academic and public library members of Michigan Dean Robert
Warner's advisory committee as well as by representatives from the infor-
mation industry with whom the school has consulted. In addition, a
program component on "communication," long required of school
library media specialists, is now required for all students.
Table 2 reports the increase, decrease, and no change in number of
courses and faculty, full and part-time, within the past two years, accord-
ing to those responding to the survey described earlier. Ten institutions (19
percent) have increased the number of courses related to children's and
young adult materials and service which they offer. Only one institution
has decreased course offerings in this area. Most institutions (thirty-four
or 65 percent) report no change, and seven (14 percent) did not respond
to this question.
Loss in numbers of full-time faculty within the past two years is
reported by five institutions (10 percent). That is higher than the decrease
in courses reported and should signal concern. Also, a slightly lower
number of institutions reported an increase in full-time faculty within the
past two years than the reported increase in courses offered (eight or 15
percent). A large majority of institutions (71 percent or thirty-seven)
reported no change within this time period. For part-time faculty,
increases were greater (sixteen or 31 percent) within the past two years.
Only one institution reported decreased part-time faculty, and twenty-six
(50 percent) reported no change.
In reporting plans for program emphasis within the next five years,
twenty-two respondents (42 percent) said their institutions plan to
increase, two (4 percent) said they expect to decrease emphasis, and twenty-
six (50 percent) said they do not expect any change in emphasis. Only two
institutions (4 percent) did not respond to this question.
CHANGES IN GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH SERVICES LIBRARIANS
Increase Decrease No Change No Response
Per- Per- Per- Per-
Per- Per- Per- Per-
No. centage No. centage No. centage No. centage
Number of Courses (past 2 yrs)
Number of F/T Faculty (past 2 yrs)
Number of P/T Faculty (past 2 yrs)
Plans for Emphasis (next 5 yrs)
N = 52 Institutions
What Library Schools Offer 133
It should be noted that a much larger survey, "School Library Media
Employment Questionnaire," was distributed to institutions with pro-
grams preparing school library media specialists by the American Associa-
tion for School Librarian's Library Media Educators Section. Results from
this survey should be of considerable interest to the field. That question-
naire did not seek information about public library youth services place-
ment and projected need, however.
Of the fifty-two institutions represented in the present survey, forty (77
percent) reported that they had offered one or more continuing education
(CE) programs intended for school and/ or public library youth services
librarians during the past two years. The range for all institutions was zero
to seventeen within this time period. Table 3 shows the number of institu-
tions which offered any of the following types of CE programs: (1) those
given for academic credit and therefore applicable for a graduate degree,
(2) those given for continuing education units (CEUs) as approved by the
institution or by a state agency established to coordinate continuing educa-
tion, and (3) those given as noncredit workshops, conferences, or seminars.
Three library schools offered six or more continuing education courses for
academic credit, another five institutions offered three to five CE programs
for academic credit, and seventeen offered one or two such programs dur-
ing the past two years. Twenty-five institutions, slightly less than half of
the total response group of fifty-two, reported offering continuing educa-
tion programs for academic credit to youth services librarians.
Programs offering CEU credits were not given quite as often for this
audience. Two institutions gave six or more programs, six gave three to
five programs, and fourteen gave one or two programs. The total number
of institutions offering programs directed to youth services librarians for
CEUs was twenty-two.
Noncredit programs for this audience were given by still fewer institu-
tions; none gave six or more programs without credit, six gave three to five
programs, and twelve gave one or two during the past two years. Although
CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR YOUTH SERVICES LIBRARIANS
WITHIN THE PAST Two YEARS
Type of Program Number of Programs
6 or more 3-5 1-2 No Response
Number of Institutions offering 1 or more CE Programs in the past two years = 40 (77 percent)
Range of CE Programs offered = 0-17
134 Managers and Missionaries
the total number of institutions giving this type of continuing education
program is smaller than the number giving either of the credit type
programs (eighteen), the noncredit activities described by respondents
seem to attract larger numbers of participants, often 200 or more for a
single event. Thus they do provide a useful function in the professional
development of youth services librarians. This may be especially impor-
tant in geographic areas where other agencies professional associations,
regional service units, or interagency consortia are not providing such a
function. But even if other groups are available, there is value for the
library school and for the practitioner to interact on matters of updating
An impressive and extensive list of CE topics for credit and noncredit
was offered by those responding to the questionnaire. They included many
facets of materials and services of interest to youth services librarians.
Several library schools offer updates on different topics for this audience
each year. Some are day long activities, others are one week mini-courses,
and still others are offered via television or on a series of Saturdays. It seems
safe to say that most library schools would respond positively to almost any
suggestion for continuing education activities they received from youth
Responses were mixed to the question: Within the past two years, to
what extent have practitioners who work with youth participated in your
continuing education activities which were not designed especially for this
group (e.g., searching automated databases, financial management for
librarians, using microcomputers in libraries)? Some respondents said
they had no statistics to reflect the degree of participation of any type of
professional in their continuing education activities, and others indicated
little participation in these general interest topics. One respondent inter-
preted the question as meaning a lack of importance in these topics for
school or public librarians who work with children or young adults. This
was certainly not intended. A fair number of library schools reported
experiences similar to those at Michigan in which a growing number of
youth services librarians are seeking the same kind of professional develop-
ment as are their colleagues in adult services in academic, special, and
public libraries. Particularly in the areas noted earlier online searching,
management skills, and microcomputer applications information pro-
fessionals of many specialties seem to be feeling the need for more expe-
rience and acting on that need to gain or renew skills.
In summarizing the findings of this survey and drawing conclusions
from it, I am modestly optimistic about what library schools are offering
What Library Schools Offer 135
youth services practitioners and those who wish careers in this arena. A
large majority of library schools are offering graduate programs with
curriculum plans in one or both of the youth services library settings,
school or public. All but two of the institutions from which responses were
received report that they have one or more faculty members in this area; for
forty-nine (94 percent) of the total responding group of fifty-two, at least
one of these faculty members has full-time status. This means that some-
one is there to listen to the needs of youth services librarians and to speak to
those needs in curriculum planning activities of the institution.
The percent of graduates who have taken youth services positions in
the past two years varies from one institution to another; for the majority in
this survey, one-fourth or more of the total number of graduates took such
a position. But many institutions, as is true with the library school at
Michigan, would welcome the opportunity to increase the number.
Twenty-two library schools reported that they plan greater emphasis for
this specialization within the next five years. Several are actively recruiting
students now to meet the need for youth services professionals in both
school and public libraries. These and other library schools may find
valuable support for such an action from this Allerton Conference and
from the AASL survey mentioned earlier. Few institutions reported
decreases in number of courses within the past two years.
The most negative indicator is that five institutions (10 percent) have
decreased the number of full-time faculty who have teaching responsibility
and expertise in materials and library services for youth. It is hoped and
believed that this figure will be reversed in the next two to five years.
Continuing education to meet the needs of youth services practitio-
ners appears to be healthy; many types of programs are offered and most
library schools participate in some CE activities for this audience. Not all
relevant CE is, or should be, directed exclusively to this audience. If youth
services librarians are a part of the mainstream of the information profes-
sion, as they must be, then all instructors must understand and courses
throughout the curriculum must address the needs of this group within the
context of the total professional education as well as through separate
segments of that educational program.
JUDITH A. DRESCHER
Director of Libraries
Memphis/Shelby County Public Library and Information Center
What Do Public Libraries Need From
Managers and Missionaries
for Children's Services?
As a former children's services librarian and a library administrator in
several public libraries, I've spoken on this topic numerous times over the
last twelve years. In general, the audience expects to hear words of wisdom
about how children's librarians need to know the literature in the field and
the wide range of needs of their varied audiences, how to budget, how to
select materials and do programming, and how to get the administrator's
attention. Certainly an M.L.S., a little experience in the field, and some
continuing education will provide an awareness of these needs. Therefore,
it is obvious that libraries and children's services librarians can address
needs other than those that are specific to children's librarianship.
Over the years many librarians have realized that those in children's
services need to know more than just the literature of the field. For
instance, only after I ceased being a children's librarian did I have a
conversation with a friend who explained the development of motor skills
in young children. With chagrin, I realized that almost all the finger plays
selected for use in programming had been inappropriate and probably very
Children's services librarians need to know about child development
(both mental and physical) as well as how children learn to read. Although
not all practitioners agree with the methods used in schools, we need to
know the current methods being used in our schools and, more impor-
tantly, we need to be aware of curriculum changes. Just as we need to know
about child development, we need to know how children build vocabulary
skills, word recognition, sentence patterns, and comprehension.
Most children's services librarians, even in very large systems, do their
own public relations so they need to know what sells their programs and
how to put it into a format that will "talk" to children or those who pay
138 Managers and Missionaries
attention to library services for children. Program planning is a necessity
for all children's librarians and one that takes great skill. Children's
services librarians would do well to spend time learning how to put
together a good program as well as concentrating on the content.
But, I'd like to move on to a larger issue. After the basics are there,
what do libraries need from children's librarians? I would suggest the
following: advocacy, political savvy, initiative, commitment, pride,
Although Frances Clark Sayers (1965) is most often quoted for her
insightful comments on the philosophy of librarianship to children, I
particularly like her quote from Summoned by Books when she says: "If
she (the children's librarian) is left outside the realm of the intellectual and
administrative concern of the library staff with which she works, she had
better look to her own attitudes" (p. 44).
As a library administrator, I market and sell library services everyday. I
also react to "being sold" a service or library product that I am convinced
will benefit both the public and position the library in a prominent and
respected place in the community. Without well planned, specific advo-
cacy on the part of children's librarians, the library administration will
respond to its own agenda or to those on the staff who are pushing certain
services. Children's services librarians have consistently suffered from the
syndrome of waiting for the recognition they know they deserve and it's
obvious that that isn't working.
Closely aligned with advocacy is political savvy. In other words, what
is going on in your community that is such an obvious match with service
to children that you could use it to make children's services a higher
priority in your library? Learn to translate local community efforts, inter-
ests, and plans into needs for library service. Watch for issues that surface in
every community emphasis on job training, education, community edu-
cation centers, preschoolers, reading readiness and make certain that the
library is involved. Make a plan, call whoever is in charge, tell them what
you can do for them. Learn to think of the library as a place that can offer
infinite possibilities for services and translate those possibilities for others
in the community who don't think of the library that way.
Libraries are always looking for employees with initiative, but it is
believed that children's librarians need initiative more than others. You are
often the only professional who exclusively serves children in your library
(a lonely spot) so it takes more and harder efforts to do the work that needs
to be done and be the standard bearer for children's services. Make certain
that initiative is recognized by volunteering to give reports to friends
groups and the library board about what is happening in children's
services and why. Parlay your ability and initiative into becoming recog-
nized as a valuable and respected voice for children's services.
What Do Public Libraries Need 139
Commitment and pride are two needs that go closely together. I have
made it a point to always tell others about my beginnings in the profession,
and I have advocated and supported children's service as an administrator.
Too often, however, I have watched children's services librarians negate
their own image by both downgrading what they do and permitting others
to do it. Students often ask me where I learned to be a library director and I
always tell them I learned two excellent skills as a children's librarian
how to tell a story and how to manage a crowd of three-year olds! Chil-
dren's services librarians need to decide that they are going to commit
themselves to being a good one and make certain others know how good
Libraries need librarians who look, act, and perform in a professional
manner. We can learn much from professionals in other fields when we
recognize that they are consciously portraying an image to the public that
they want the public to believe. Be very aware that you are always repre-
senting the library profession and the institution for which you work if
you don't like the image, you are in control of changing it.
Finally, I know what to look for in children's services librarians. I
want to know that you decided to become one, that you know what you're
doing, but, more importantly, why you're doing it, that you have the
ability to articulate that why to varied audiences (including me), that you
can see the possibilities of library service to children in everything that
happens around you, and be able to determine how and why some of them
fit into library service. I look for the philosopher, the dreamer, the innova-
tor who is part pragmatic realist. Coupled with practical library skills, this
is what public libraries are searching for in their children's services
Sayers, F. C. (1965). Summoned by books, essays and speeches by Frances Clarke Sayers.
New York: Viking.
DELORES ZACHARY PRETLOW
Supervisor of Media Services
Richmond Public Schools
What Do Schools Need?
After eighteen years of professional commitment to library media services
for youth, I found myself perplexed by the question, What do schools need?
Perplexed because my personal perceptions were so clear or so I thought.
Yet, I could not focus and translate them to the written word. It became
necessary to sit and recall years of professional behaviors and experiences
in the school and public library. It also became necessary to summon
relationships and accomplishments, gained or lost, due to those behaviors.
What I saw showed growth and tremendous change, but not nearly
enough. It was frightening because I found that the majority of our
problems were due to us; we did not know who we were or what we should
be doing. I turned to research and fellow professionals for help. I had to
know what was being done in the school library media centers of this
country. There was too much fragmentation in my mind and in the
evidence to determine what was needed now and tomorrow. What I dis-
cerned schools to need from librarianship and what I see them needing in
the future was tied to how we perceived ourselves as being and what role we
are willing to play.
Visualize this scenario. The school doors open at least thirty minutes
before the morning bell. The children begin to enter slowly, sleepily, but
with a destination in mind. The library media center is warm, cozy, and
there is a person there frantically trying to get ready for the day. Some
books that really need to be processed came in late yesterday. A teacher is
waiting for them. There are still four unusable media kits from last week,
returned with parts missing. An order needs to go out for replacement of
the parts. A class is coming in at first period and the schedule shows that
classes will continue until fifth period. Lunchtime work is out of the
question cafeteria duty. There is a faculty meeting this afternoon so no
after school catch-up. The curriculum team is meeting, and the busy
library media specialist really wants to prepare some bibliographies for the
units to be studied next, even though not invited to do so. Two projectors
142 Managers and Missionaries
need to be moved from their security location to classrooms for first period,
and they need to be checked before going out.
The faces appear in the door and see the distressed expression of the
library media specialist. Some just want to view magazines, some have
reports due, and some are looking for a book that a friend returned. If you
were one of the students, would you ask the library media specialist for
anything? If you were the library media specialist, would you want the
students to ask?
James Liesner (1984) in "Learning at Risk: School Library Media
Programs in an Information World" states a premise school library media
specialists should contemplate:
Considerable confusion exists regarding the roles library media specialists door
do not perform and the roles they are capable of performing. Roles cannot be
performed and services cannot be used effectively if they are not perceived accu-
rately by potential clients or if there is a lack of acceptance of these roles by either
the individuals receiving the benefits of them, or the individuals attempting to
perform them. Role conflicts of this sort almost inevitably lead to job dissatisfac-
tion and ineffective performance, (p. 76)
"Capable of performing" is one significant phrase of this excerpt. Most
school library media specialists have educational backgrounds. They have
been trained as teachers and, therefore, curriculum theory and instruc-
tional design are part of the expertise brought to the field of library media.
Skills instruction which by default, lack of acceptance, or ignorance is
often taught in isolation. Library media specialists are not, as a whole,
invited or even considered to be a part of the school curriculum team.
This brings up another issue in Liesner's excerpt which is "roles
cannot be performed accurately by potential clients or if there is a lack of
acceptance of these roles by either the individuals receiving the benefits of
them or the individuals attempting to perform them." Although the
library media center has been called the "hub" of the school, the actuality
of this occurring is not universal.
The role designation of the specialists is not seen as a support posi-
tion. Olson (1984) in "Unassailable Truth? A Look at the Concept of
School Library Media Specialists as Teachers," cites "the problem is that
we have been too literal in our interpretation and demonstration attempts
at curriculum support.... such support should be far more direct. In
fact. ..the library is a part of the curriculum" (p. 55). He submits that we
must stop thinking about the library as a resource, a service, and start
thinking about it as a subject, a course requiring direct instruction to
achieve its objectives" (p. 56).
The need is evident for library media specialists to accept themselves
and to determine their "place" in the scheme of educating children. Inher-
ent in this acceptance is the need to educate teachers and administrators,
What Do Schools Need 143
not just of the importance of the school media program, but, more signifi-
cantly, the role the library media specialist plays in the accomplishment of
the total program. Only with this sense of being needed and expected to
perform can both the school and the library media specialist attain the
In order for job satisfaction to be a basic part of the work life of the
library media specialist, evidence of self-confident professionalism is
necessary, even if forced. This self-confident professionalism is shown
when library media specialists come out of the center office performing
clerical tasks only and enter the mainstream of the school's instructional
Hambleton (1982) offers another response to role designation as seen
through an analysis of studies on school library media specialists and
programs by various school-based individuals as well as by media special-
In the numerous studies carried out in the past twenty years, a number of
conclusions are common: that the school librarian's perception of that role differs
significantly from that of others in the educational system, that the school library
seems to play only a marginal role in the total educational program, and that the
low regard for the school librarian militates against a direct involvement in the
instructional program of the school, (pp. 18-20)
The impact of the perceived role designation, or lack thereof, of the
library media specialist was further cited by Judy Pitts (1984) in "A Cre-
ative Survey of Research Concerning Role Expectations of Library Media
Specialists." Four of these findings are summarized below:
1. Today's library media specialists preferred the traditional services of
acquisition and distribution, as opposed to instructional development,
evaluation, and utilization.
2. Professional media specialists could communicate to teachers the
instruction role they played much better than part-time or nonprofes-
sional library media specialists.
3. Librarians with more diversified interests exhibited more involvement
in the curriculum.
4. Librarians with low self-images spent more of their work time in the
media center doing clerical tasks and less work with students (pp.
These findings, coupled with the research excerpt of Hambleton,
create the frame of mind necessary to eliminate the negative aspects of what
we need to be to and for schools and promote planning for the future.
Understanding this research may be just the impetus for library media
specialists to become more aggressive in their discipline. We must be
aggressive in order to promote the field and its necessity, not merely
relevance, to the educational arena by showing the achievements and
144 Managers and Missionaries
benefits to young people. "School library media specialists and children's
librarians have long had specialized programs to meet special needs; then
some degree of specialization in other areas became the rule" (Hannigan,
1984, p. 24). The specialization, more than likely, has been in a content
area, or in general elementary education/teaching.
Just as we promote freedom to read, we have promoted putting mecha-
nisms into place to allow personal participation in what children read and
view outside the library media center walls. "Technological advancements
have redefined the role of the school media specialist in the 1 980's from that
of a collector of resources and administrator of a facility to that of a teacher
and instructional designer" (Hortin, 1985, pp. 20-21).
Reading any of the literature enhances the knowledge that school
media specialists, along with being teachers and instructional designers,
are setting priorities as participants in the instructional program. We are
bringing to the table personal expertise in research skills, teaching metho-
dology, curriculum development, etc. We are integrating the standards of
learning and collection development into the overall pattern of classroom
instruction, which is as it should be. Consequently, the role of the library
media specialist becomes a more integral part of, and reinforces the role of,
the classroom teacher.
Liesner states that it is time to accept and develop the information
intermediary function that we perform and not worry about whether we
are teachers or not. Of course we perform a teaching function, but it should
be based on our own discipline and related to the essential intermediary
role we are playing and need to expand and improve (Liesner, 1984, p. 85).
No longer do we need to carry the self-imposed weight of feeling like
second-class teachers or of considering ourselves as "enrichment for the
basics rather than as the fodder on which learning can thrive; enrichment,
like butter on bread, can be scraped off or done without when times get
tough" (Loertscher, 1982, pp. 415-21). Loertscher goes on to say: "If library
media specialists can take the best programming ideas they have now and
integrate them into the instructional program... they will be demonstrating
their worth instead of just talking about it" (p. 421).
This, then, is what we need to be to schools. The library media
specialists, moving toward expansion of services to meet the intellectual
needs of a more technologically advanced society, demanding higher level
skills, and more complex means of integrating those skills into a multifa-
ceted curriculum design is, indeed, what we should be accomplishing.
It is universally understood that "the keeper of the books" is now the
"information keeper/ retriever/disseminator." "The older concepts of pas-
sive culture repositories or centers for the development of an enjoyment
and appreciation for reading good books while identifying very important
functions, do not appear to be actively responsive to the entire range of
What Do Schools Need 145
needs identified as crucial for survival and achievement in an extremely
complex, information and rapidly changing world" (Liesner, 1984, p. 69).
What are school library media specialists doing to secure their effectiveness
in the twenty-first century? It is safe to say that if we are professionally
astute, we are:
1. soliciting the support of school administrators;
2. sponsoring and presenting in-service programs for the teachers with
whom we work;
3. producing much needed instructional materials not available through
commercial sources or too expensive to purchase;
4. managing media centers with computer programs designed to provide
the much needed time for student and teacher joint efforts;
5. training students to use the electronic formats of information retrieval
so that a broader base of research is at their fingertips;
6. accepting responsibility for and asking to be part of contributing to the
curriculum design effort of the school program;
7. providing, for preview purposes, newly produced/ printed materials in
an effort to bring teachers and administrators into the selection process;
in this manner they gain a commitment to and a responsibility for the
importance of collection development based on the educational philo-
sophy of the program;
8. acknowledging that we may be our own worst enemies in not actively
seeking and establishing our role in the total scheme of educating
9. sharing with each other goals and dreams for what can be done and
what has been done, and, in so doing, learning from, with, and for each
10. adamantly stating personnel worth and justifiably taking credit for
11. developing curricula of library skills to be integrated into the subject
content areas; thus showing the significant impact of the field on all
others, and broadening the scope of educating youth, and;
12. reaching out to other libraries and agencies to supplement needed mate-
rials, gain additional support, and make them active participants in the
goal and knowledgeability of the role of the library media specialist.
If the twenty-first century is to look bright, library media specialists
must become not only accountable, but accomplished in their role and
with the impact of it on the education of youth. The confusion over role
designation has not kept library media specialists from moving forward.
What we should be doing is evidenced by the apparent knowledge and
understanding of what we have been doing, the desire to determine what
the schools need, and the determination to reach that need, mitigate the
negative effects of what has not been done and cause us to move forward.
146 Managers and Missionaries
Hambleton, A. (1982, May /June). Static in the educational intercom: Conflict and school li-
brarian. Emergency Librarian, 9, 18.
Hannigan, J. (1984). Vision to purpose to power: A quest for excellence in the education of
library and information science professionals. In Libraries and the learning society:
Papers in response to a nation at risk (p. 24). Chicago: American Library Association.
Hortin, J. A. (1985, September). The changing role of the school media specialist. Tech
Trends, 36, 20-21.
Liesner, J. W. (1984). Learning at risk: School library media programs in an information
world. In Libraries and the learning society: Papers in response to a nation at risk.
Chicago: American Library Association.
Loertscher, D. (1982a, February). School library media centers: The revolutionary past. Wil-
son Library Bulletin, 56, 416.
Loertscher, D. (1982b, February). The second revolution: A taxonomy for the 1980s. Wilson
Library Bulletin, 56, 421.
Olson, L. W. (1984, Fall). Unassailable truth? A look at the concept of school library media
specialists as teachers. School Library Media Quarterly, 12, 55.
Pitts, J. M. (1982, Winter). A creative survey of research concerning role expectations of li-
brary media specialists. School Library Media Quarterly, 10, 164-169.
GERALD G. HODGES
School of Library and Information Science
University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa
Evaluation and Measurement
of Youth Services
The current effort to improve the quality of youth services and to expand
these services must be firmly grounded in a meaningful context of evalua-
tion. Evaluation of personnel and measurement and evaluation of pro-
gram are essential components of any program which is striving for
excellence in the delivery of needed services. Every time personnel evalua-
tion is considered, I am reminded of the principal at my first position as a
school library media specialist.
He felt that the best methods of evaluating my performance (and,
truthfully, my program by extension) was to count the frequency with
which I changed the bulletin boards in the library. I suppose you could
develop some output measure for this. It was very soon found that students
were more adept at this, and soon another measure of performance (and of
my program) became the number of students who were involved in library
media center activities. The true problem encountered here was that my job
description really only evolved there was never sufficient prior planning
between me and the principal for what I intended to accomplish. And this
prior planning does appear to be one of the most important components of
developing meaningful methods for program and personnel evaluation. If
this does not occur, there is the real problem in schools of library media
specialists being evaluated on the same basis as classroom teachers, a
process which does not fully address all the activities of library media
specialists, regardless of how much we teach.
Youth services librarians, regardless of their institution, should have a
major voice in communicating to their superiors the types of desired
evaluation processes and methods. This input can help administrators see
very clearly the relationship of library services in a school to the instruc-
tional program or the roles which children's and young adult librarians
are playing in achieving the public library's goals.
148 Managers and Missionaries
A process of communication in which goals are determined, in which
priorities among library functions are established, and in which perfor-
mance measures (or quality indicators) are defined is essential. There is a
real need for youth librarians to be evaluated in terms of their jobs and not
on the basis of some particular conception of librarianship which may
have little relationship to the actual job at hand. If performance is not
going to be evaluated by your planning with teachers, there will likely be
little payoff for spending the time, energy, and intelligence which that
entails. On the other hand, if you minimize in advance the importance of
the clerical and technical aspects of your program, then this conception of
librarianship will not play as important a part in performance evaluation.
So then, performance evaluation measures should be planned in advance,
should be job specific, should be viewed positively, should be ongoing in
the sense that they can be modified as program goals are modified, and
should provide some indicators and measures for assessing the extent to
which the librarian is meeting or exceeding expectations.
The process of performance evaluation should be based upon the most
appropriate mix of methods for a given situation. Each librarian should
work to make certain that the best data can be gathered to determine
effectiveness and to indicate areas for improvement and growth. Methods
which might be considered in determining the most appropriate mix are:
establishing performance standards or competencies; establishing specific
levels of acceptable performance on these criteria; supervisor observation
of performance (here it is extremely important that a conference be held
prior to the observation so that the supervisor will understand the purposes
of the activities); supervisor review of performance; peer and client review
of performance (in a school setting, important data for performance
improvement can be gained by systematically gaining input from teachers
and students); systematic self-assessment (it truly is renewing to have the
opportunity to examine the extent to which personal and professional
goals are being attained); and objective assessment of the degree of attain-
ment of institutional goals.
Those in youth librarianship have available a multitude of instru-
ments which recently have been developed to evaluate the performance of
youth librarians. These can be of great assistance in the development of
instruments for local use. A clever idea is to make adaptations of existing
instruments since evaluation in the best sense is a local process to meet
Goal Setting for Youth Library Programs
One of the clearest ways for youth library services to be more visible
and to communicate program excellence is through the intricate and
Evaluation and Measurement 149
necessary process of the establishment of program goals. Without the
direction of goals, it is difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate programs in
meaningful ways. In schools, the interactive process of working with
students, faculty, and administrators helps ensure that library program
goals are derived from school goals and that the program functions which
flow from these goals are consistent with the curricular and instructional
objectives of the school. A major benefit of this interactive involvement is
that many schools report that library and information skills goals have
become a part of the stated goals and priorities for the school.
In public libraries there are numerous methods for the establishment
of goals for youth services which are congruent with the goals of the parent
institution. The Planning Process for Public Libraries enables an individ-
ual institution to determine those goals and consequently the objectives
which will give direction to library programs and to budget allocations.
We need to begin to gather data on a national basis which will communi-
cate the importance of youth services within libraries. Many public librar-
ies, both voluntarily and as requirements for accreditation, are collecting
and reporting output measures. There is considerable anecdotal evidence
that youth services may account for large portions of the circulation per
capita, turnover rate, attendance per capita, and registration per capita of
the library's output measures. We should make a concerted effort in each
library to determine the proportion which youth services contribute as a
justification on the local level for staff, budgets, etc., and to make youth
services even more visible to library staff and trustees. In the effort to help
each child in the United States receive a public library card by the end of
1987, we can certainly see youth services expanding across the nation. Now
is probably exactly the time to begin to measure and report our effective-
ness and accomplishments. A joint effort among the youth divisions
(YASD, AASL, and ALSC) of ALA should be undertaken to assist local
libraries in gathering and reporting data regarding the current status of
In all libraries serving youth, a critical part of the evaluation process is
to use measures which will gauge the satisfaction of users, actual and
potential, with services and collections. An analysis of demographic data
will indicate who our clients are. Measures need to be developed which will
help determine penetration, or the use of the services by the user popula-
tion; availability (why an available service is not being used or to determine
why an unavailable desired service is not being made available); and
determine the degree of satisfaction with the services of both users and staff.
Some cringe at the thought of measurement and reporting of services,
feeling that some currently available measures are too primitive, mecha-
nistic, or rudimentary to come close to conveying the quality of the human
interactions in library services. Some librarians say that they simply do not
150 Managers and Missionaries
have the time to collect data in order to report measures of effectiveness. We
appear, however, to be in an era when the gathering and reporting of data
is so essential to the continued improvement of youth services that we
simply must make time and make certain that the measures used do have
meaning for us.
As indicated earlier, we have the responsibility for determining the
goals and measures which are appropriate for our library. This also gives
us the responsibility for measuring the extent to which those goals have
been achieved or exceeded. When budget crunches come, we should not
have to rely on the good graces of funding authorities, hoping that they
nostalgically will remember children's services. It has become clear that in
many school systems library services are among the first to be considered
for cutbacks. We must now be prepared for interpreting and justifying
current levels of funding and services and also be prepared for having
realistic plans for program expansion. An essential element of this process
is the identification of the audience to be served. The youth divisions of
ALA have the opportunity and need to define by age who is a child, an early
adolescent, and a young adult. In order to present, on a national level, a
status report of youth services, we need to be able to define terms. If we do
not, there will be scant comparability of data and the prospects are that
youth services may suffer.
Measurement of Services Some New Possibilities
The use of output measures has indeed become widely accepted in
public libraries, and school library media specialists should develop mea-
sures which are meaningful for reporting progress in the library media
program. The available output measures, as noted earlier, do not address
some of the important elements of our programs, elements which merit
more sophisticated methods of measurement. The extent to which the
school library media specialist performs the instructional role, engages in
the provision of access to students and collection evaluation, and the extent
of promotion of materials through reading guidance are four areas which
will serve as illustrations of where new measurement methods might be
Instructional Role Quotient
In school library media programs, we must demonstrate a high level of
involvement in the instructional programs of schools. There is a real need
to demonstrate to ourselves and to administrators that we are making the
best possible uses of the collections and of our competence in instructional
development. The personalization of instruction implies very strongly a
Evaluation and Measurement 151
systematic approach to the decisions regarding the best learning alterna-
tives for each student. In the past we have typically relied on reporting
numbers of teachers with whom we have teamed, numbers of classes which
have used the media center's collection, and percentages of students taught.
These appear to be rudimentary in that we are penalized for that teacher who
simply will not use materials other than a textbook and a chalkboard, and
these measures do not allow for the varying amount of time involved in
various levels of working with teachers. I have developed an Instructional
Role Quotient which might help present a more accurate and more posi-
tive picture of what we are doing when working in this capacity. Also, after
gathering baseline data, a quotient such as this might be used in establish-
ing goals for improvement (see Figure 1).
a = planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction
with teacher(s); teaching library media skills when
appropriate; certainly correlating library media center
materials with instructional objectives; may or may not
include grading of student work; may or may not include local
production of materials; may or may not include
gathering resources from other information agencies;
does include evaluating the effectiveness of the materials used.
b = provision of materials to meet instructional
objectives after planning session(s) with teachers(s);
faculty involvement in selection of titles for these
objectives will count here. No evaluation of
effectiveness of materials.
c Provide guidance to students who come from a class
requiring information, without planning with teacher(s).
d = Acquire and organize materials in the subject area.
e Instructional materials are not available to
support the unit.
n = Number of applicable units in the designated time
period (NOTE: the time period is your
decision; suggestions are a full year, semester,
or grading period).
Figure 1. Instructional Role Quotient (IRQ)
152 Managers and Missionaries
This formula will give credit for the amount of work involved in
planning with teachers and will not overly penalize for the teachers who do
not use media center materials, even when the units are applicable. An
example of the use of this formula follows:
_ 6a + 4fr + 2c + d - e _
IRQ ~ n
_ 6(2) + 4(12) + 2(60) + 19 - 1 = 198
IRQ = 2.475
In the earlier example, there are eighty applicable units during the desig-
nated time period (n). In two (a) of the units, you work with the teacher in
planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction. In twelve (b) you
correlate materials with the objectives; in sixty (c) you work with students
who need information; in nineteen (d) materials are available; and in one
(e) there are no materials available. In this example, the IRQ is 2.475 on a
scale of 6.000 to negative 1 .000. Your goal then may be to maintain an IRQ
of 2.475 or increase this quotient to a higher number.
Many libraries report attendance figures, either average daily atten-
dance or visits per capita, or other. These statistics do not reflect the pur-
poses of use. Padding attendance figures with students who are simply
attending a study hall and not using materials or using the library as a
dating center are not the best ways of communicating access. "Purposes of
use" is a concept which we must help administrators (and users) consider
as priorities. The following Daily Access Quotient (DAQ) helps shed light
on the activities which users pursue in our centers (see Figure 2).
In the twenty-day period (n), note that 950 students attended the media
center, and the average daily attendance was 47. 500. The earlier mentioned
DAQ is best used for in-house measurement of use since it is influenced by
the number of students in the school and other internal factors. A standard-
ized figure would be to consider enrollment and could be presented as the
per capita access quotient (PCAQ).
s number of students
PCAQ = 5.500
Evaluation and Measurement 153
4x + 4y + 3z + a - sh
x = number of students you teach library-related
content, either inside or outside the media
y = number of students working on activities and
with materials you have planned for specific
instructional objectives (generally this would
be in periods following instruction or introduction).
z = number of students working independently in
using library media center materials;
a = number of students attending with no
sh = number of students assigned to the library
media center for study hall;
n = number of days.
4x + 4y + 3z + a - sh
4(200) + 4(200) + 3(300) + 250 = 2750
DAQ = 137.500
Figure 2. Daily Access Quotient (DAQ)
Collection Evaluation Measures
In measurement and justification of library services, we often focus
exclusively on inputs (e.g., twelve books/student) and have not done
enough in measuring the effectiveness of collections. This becomes espe-
cially critical when proposing additional expenditures for materials.
Using a clever combination of input and output measures can paint a
clearer picture for funding bodies of how much "bang for the buck" we are
getting from our rather high-cost collections.
David Loertscher has developed methods for collection "mapping" of
general and specialized collections in terms of instructional objectives.
154 Managers and Missionaries
This is a means of telling us where the collections are strong and where
they need more titles to meet adequately the instructional needs of stu-
dents. School districts should use this mapping approach to determine the
most appropriate statistics for determining exemplary collections as
opposed to those making progress. Local assessment is essential here.
Public and school libraries should both be gathering data regarding
in-house use of all collections. This is particularly important for reference
collections, periodicals, vertical files, and other collections whose use is
not reflected in circulation statistics. This is also particularly important
for libraries serving the information needs of young adults.
In justifying any monies for materials, but most importantly for those
high-cost items such as reference works, we should provide data regarding
the cost per use. For example, if an encyclopedia set costs $500, some may
feel that the old outdated set will last another year. However, if it is known
that each set receives approximately 2,000 uses per year, then the cost per
use is only 25 cents. A means of justifying periodical subscriptions is also
cost per use. If a periodical costs $20 and the total uses of current and back
issues is 200 in a year, then the cost per use of that periodical for that year is
10 cents. These figures should be readily available both for in-house and
It is also becoming increasingly important to consider the concept of
document delivery rate or "lag time" in providing information sources for
children and young adults. Baseline data should be gathered and questions
should be posed regarding the acceptability of the lag time and decisions
made regarding steps to take to reduce this figure.
Reading Guidance Quotient
A function dear to all of us is providing guidance to users of the
collections. An in-house measure to determine how well materials are
promoted can be expressed as a Reading Guidance Quotient (see Figure 3).
In this example, fifty new titles were promoted using direct, specially
designed direct and indirect methods for each title. No title went straight to
the shelves. The range in this formula is 6.000 to negative 1.000.
The purpose of this presentation has been to reinforce the theme of the
conference managers and missionaries. I believe that youth services li-
brarians are missionaries in the best definition of that term. If we can bol-
ster fervor with measurement and evaluation data which justify our great
faith and zeal, then we as managers of change can hopefully achieve the type
of future sought for youth services. Cooperative efforts among the youth di-
visions of ALA, among library school educators, and among all librarians
serving youth, regardless of type of library, can help us as a unified coali-
tion bring about the scenarios established at this landmark conference.
Evaluation and Measurement 155
D __ _ 3d + 2sdi + id - sos
d number of titles promoted by DIRECT reading
reading guidance techniques; e.g., booktalking,
book discussion, individual referral (either
oral or written), reviews in newspapers, cable
TV exposure, etc.
sdi - number of titles promoted by SPECIALLY DESIGNED
INDIRECT techniques; e.g., pathfinders, "What to Read
After You Read...," thematic bookmarks;
thematic displays, etc.
id number of titles promoted by other INDIRECT
techniques e.g., display books, general
listing of new arrivals, etc.
sos = number of titles with no promotion
(straight on shelves)
n = number of possible titles (this will vary;
you may be promoting one portion of the
collection, or new arrivals, or...).
_ 3d + 2sdi + id - sos
_ 3(50) + 2(50) + 50 - = 300
RGQ = 6.000
Figure 3. Reading Guidance Quotient (RGQ)
DAWN H. HELLER
Media Services Coordinator
Riverside-Brookfield High School
Developing a Youth Agenda
for the Information Age
Looking at this audience of some 200 professionals dedicated to improving
library services to children and young adults, I am reminded of a story
about Don Adcock's daughter. Some of you know Don director of
Library Services for the Glen Ellyn, Illinois elementary school district, and
active in state and national library associations.
Some years ago he told me that one of his daughters in the early
elementary grades was asked as a class assignment to draw a picture of what
her mother or father did as "their job." She drew her dad driving a car.
During the "show and tell" phase of this occupation study unit, she
explained her father's occupation. He wasn't a taxi driver nor a traveling
salesman. She explained that her dad was a librarian he went to meet-
ings. There is a postscript to this story. Don's daughter is now an adult and
is now the director of a public library in a small town in Illinois, and now
she goes to meetings too.
We all have ways of rating these library-related meetings. In addition
to perceptions of the quality of programming and vitality of participants,
we often have a subjective yardstick or measure.
As a "Notable Quotable" collector, I am a collector of memorable
phrases, apt euphemisms, and vivid images offered by speakers at con-
ferences and institutes. Let me share some of these quotes that I have
gathered at this Allerton Institute. (Incidentally, on the basis of both
quantity and quality of "Notable Quotables," this has to rate as a Four-
Star Meeting.) Perhaps, too, the process will help relive the memorable
moments we have shared, and perhaps even help focus on the task of this
Regina Minudri reminded us that: "Most important people have been
young adults at some time in their lives!" She also urged us to remember
that "while we are speaking on issues, hopefully if not all in one voice, at
158 Managers and Missionaries
least in the same key." Let's remember this as work is done on our agenda-
building task this morning.
And so we are about to embark on the agenda-building process. It's
time to work together to create a document to serve as a plan, a road map for
the future using our higher order thinking skills. If we do our work well
today, we truly do have the opportunity to fulfill Marilyn Miller's pro-
phesy: "This Allerton will be viewed as a milestone in the development of
library service to youth."
The following are the recommendations of the participants of the
1986 Allerton Institute for the Youth Agenda. They are presented by each
of the three focus areas examined at the institute.
MANAGEMENT OF YOUTH SERVICES:
POLITICAL, FINANCIAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS
Recruitment of Youth Services Library Staff on
Professional and Paraprofessional Levels
1 . Improve the image of youth services workers.
2. Attain pay equity within the profession.
3. Recruit in undergrad programs, schools of education, and from begin-
ning students in library science programs.
4. Establish mentorship programs and other formal contacts between
practitioners and students in library school.
5. Define skills and qualities needed for youth services staff.
6. Examine seniority issues in both school and public library settings so
that transferring from within the profession is easier.
1 . ALA youth divisions should work jointly to influence ALA legislation
policy where youth issues are involved.
2. ALA youth divisions should train youth librarians to be effective politi-
cally and to build coalitions.
3. Professional relationships should be established at the local, state, and
national levels both within and outside the profession. Individual
librarians, state and regional associations, agencies, and the youth
divisions of ALA should be active in coalition-building.
4. Identify and publicize liaisons already existing between youth divisions
and other youth-serving associations and organizations, and identify
and publicize special projects which show that cooperation works in
improving library service for youth.
Developing a Youth Agenda 159
5. Respect differences between youth services librarians and divisions at
all levels and make commitment to working together.
6. Have ALA develop policy and guidelines on coalition-building.
7. Build active liaisons with associations such as professional education
1 . Develop a proactive stand in supporting legislation for youth.
2. Require state ALA chapters to report annually on legislation to the
ALA council pertaining to all types of libraries.
1. Identify illiterates including levels of illiteracy and examine motiva-
tions to become literate.
2. At the national level, develop a program that provides definition, an
awareness campaign, funding for programs for the various target
groups, the establishment of a program clearinghouse, and coalition-
3. At the state level, provide funding for literacy programs, legislative
support, training for library workers, and consultant support.
4. At the local level, provide funding, implement programs, work with
other community agencies concerned with literacy, and provide staff
and other support to new readers.
1 . Identify changes in composition of the library community, for example
the number of mothers in the work force, information on the current
immigrant population, and the growth/reduction of specific age
2. Devise tools for collecting demographic data.
3. Actual collection of data on the local level with data compiled at the
state and regional level.
4. Evaluate present services/ resources in light of population changes at
the local level.
5. Library education institutions need to recognize changes and adjust
curriculum and recruitment strategies.
Librarian as Agent of Change
1 . Youth services librarians should be involved in the management and
development of library service in the larger sense at the local, state, and
160 Managers and Missionaries
2. Practitioner and library educators should work together to change and
amend library school curricula as needed.
Access to Information for Youth
1 . Dissemination of and support of the Library Bill of Rights and Access
Statement for School Librarians.
2. Removal of regulations denying access to materials of all forms and
formats by age.
3. Education of parents/community on the importance of open access to
materials and information for youth.
4. Provisions of new technologies and use of technology for obtaining
information and communication for youth.
5. Development and promotion of book selection, interlibrary loan, col-
lection development, and fee policies that include service to youth.
Youth Services Staff as Managers
1 . Youth services librarians should have opportunities for involvement in
local, area, and state boards, including boards and committees outside
2. Youth services librarians should be assertive as managers.
3. Youth services librarians should go outside parochial interest by show-
ing interest in topics outside youth areas.
4. Youth services librarians should interact with committees and faculty
in library schools and in teaching courses outside.
THE RIGHT STUFF: RECRUITMENT AND EDUCATION
FOR CHILDREN'S AND YOUNG
1. Create a clearinghouse of educational programs for youth specialists
coordinated with CLENE.
2. Explore opportunities for teleconferencing and other alternative forms
of continuing education.
3. Provide continuing education for all youth services workers.
4. Provide continuing education in related disciplines such as child psy-
chology and management.
5. Develop ways of funding continuing education.
Developing a Youth Agenda 161
1. Provide a state level consultant in each state for youth services.
2. Work with the state board of education on coordinating programs
between school and public libraries.
3. Link libraries with literacy efforts at state and regional levels to support
the rationale for youth consultants.
4. Provide system and regional youth services consultants.
5. Develop a coalition of youth divisions in ALA and PLA.
6. Petition to adopt a youth agenda by ALA.
1. Develop a list of competencies for youth services workers.
2. Set standards for library and media center programs.
3. Explore the possibility of the construction of a national exam for youth
4. Gather data on the various state certification programs. Identify or
develop a workable model for certification of school media specialists.
5. Examine and revise as necessary library school curricula related to
1. Identify model individuals and programs in youth services and publi-
2. Be visible in nonyouth-oriented activities in the library profession.
3. Assume leadership roles in professional activities.
LIVING UP TO EXPECTATIONS: EVALUATION OF SERVICE
TO CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS
1 . ALA divisions should gather, synthesize, and distribute local and/or
2. Adapt Output Measures for Public Libraries to youth services needs,
recognizing that tools and standards can be used to justify effective
3. Include training for evaluation in library education and provide in-
service training for youth service librarians on evaluation techniques.
162 Managers and Missionaries
1. Develop measures of success in reaching target audiences.
2. Create a clearinghouse for samples of evaluations using qualitative and
quantitative measurement techniques. Publish results of research
related to youth services.
3. Hold a national program on this topic with representatives from other
organizations concerned with evaluation.
4. Develop a research agenda for youth services.
Having developed a national youth agenda, it is time to develop a
personal agenda, a commitment to list the beginnings or continuations
that you can make, for this is not a challenge to "they" but to "we." What
will you do tomorrow? What will you do next week? Next month? Next
year? As Gerald Hodges said: "We all need to establish priorities."
At the opening session Marilyn Miller said she hoped it wasn't a
"freeze-dried" speech. I can say that I know this is not a freeze-dried agenda
we are developing.
I'd like to share two final notable quotables, not from the Allerton
Institute but two of my favorites. Both relate to attitude, often an overrid-
ing factor in the success of any venture. First, Henry Ford said: "If you
think you can or if you think you can't, you're right!" Second, as Yoda said
to Luke Skywalker: "There is notT-R-Y there's only DO or NOT DO.
Let's do it!
JOAN L. ATKINSON, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Library
and Information Service, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
MARGARET BUSH, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library &
Information Science, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts.
JULIE CUMMINS, Children's Services Consultant, Monroe County
Library System, Rochester, New York.
JUDITH A. DRESCHER, Director of Libraries, Memphis/Shelby County
Public Library and Information Center, Memphis, Tennessee.
LESLIE EDMONDS, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library and
Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
RUTH FAKLIS, Youth Services Consultant, Suburban Library System,
Burr Ridge, Illinois.
DAWN H. HELLER, Media Servies Coordinator, Riverside-Brookfield
High School, Riverside, Illinois.
CRAIGHTON HIPPENHAMMER, Assistant Children's Services Man-
ager, Cuyahoga County Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio.
GERALD G. HODGES, Assistant Professor, School of Library and Infor-
mation Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
MARGARET MARY KIMMEL, Professor, School of Library and Infor-
mation Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
FRANCES M. McDONALD, Associate Professor, Library Media Educa-
tion, Mankato State University, Mankato, Minnesota.
MARILYN L. MILLER, Professor and Chair, Department of Information
and Library Studies, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North
REGINA MINUDRI, Director, Berkeley [California] Public Library and
President American Library Association.
DELORES ZACHARY PRETLOW, Supervisor of Media Services, Rich-^
mond Public Schools, Richmond, Virginia.
SUSAN ROSENZWEIG, Information Manager, Center for Early Adoles-
cence, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
HELEN LLOYD SNOKE, Professor, School of Library Science, Univer-
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
164 Managers and Missionaries
CHRISTY TYSON, Youth Services Consultant, Alabama Public Library
Service (at the time of the Allerton Conference, Young Adult Services
Coordinator at Spokane [Washington] Public Library).
JANA VARLEJS, Director, Professional Development Studies, School of
Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers, The State
University of New Jersey.
Access, Information retrieval, 33
Access Quotients: 152; Daily Access
Quotient (DAQ), 152-53; Per Capita
Access Quotient (PCAQ), 152
Accreditation: American Library Asso-
ciation, MLS, 103; National Council
on Accreditation of Teacher Educa-
Administration, budgets, 21
Adolescents, 5, 14
The ALA Yearbook of Library and In-
formation Services, 82
Allen, Melody, 95
Alliance for Excellence Task Force
The American Association of School
Librarians (AASL), 5, 62, 96
Area 2 Library Services Authority in
The Association for Library Service to
Children (ALSC), 5, 92, 96
Association for Supervision and Curri-
culum Development (ASCD), 9
Atkinson, Hugh, Strategies for Change:
Part 1, 39
Atkinson, Joan, 2, 103
Behavioral Requirements Analysis
Book evaluation: selection, cooperative
Boss, Richard, Grant Money and How
to Get It, 71
Bottom Line: A Financial Magazine for
Buildings, design, 29
Bush, Margaret, 2, 89
Censorship, 55-63; library education,
60-61; personal characteristics, 57;
professional ethics, 58-59; profes-
sional organizations, 62; selection, 55
Center for Early Adolescence, 38
Certification. See Youth librarians
Child development, 137
Children's librarians. See Youth li-
Cleveland Public Library, 43
Coalition-building, 11, 15, 18, 41-49;
Coalitions. See Coalition-building
Code of ethics, 56, 58
Code of Federal Regulations, 75
Collaborative on Teaching Thinking, 9
Collection development, 12; policies,
13; resource-sharing, 12; school and
public libraries, 12, 13
Committee on Library Education
Communication center, 29-31; com-
munity agencies, 29; public relations,
Communication technology, 9; elec-
tronic classrooms, 10
Community hub, 36-38; programs for
Competencies for Librarians Serving
Youth, 91, 107, 118
Conant, Ralph, 97
Continuing education: professional
organizations, 62; youth librarians,
32, 98, 115-19, 25, 133-34, 160-61
Continuing Library Education Net-
work and Exchange (CLENE), 116
Cooperation, public and school li-
braries, 5-6, 11-13
Creative survey of Research Concerning
Role Expectations of Library Media
Culture, values and curriculum, 8
Cummins, Julie, 2, 29
Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 79, 87
Demographics, 6, 36-37, 39
Don Adcock, 157
Drescher, Judith, 2, 137
Edmonds, Leslie, 3, 96
Educational Programs for Librarians
Who Work With Youth, 129
Educational programs: goals and pri-
Education, youth librarians, 90-101,
103-12, 125, 129-35; Intellectual free-
Electronic classrooms, 10
Managers and Missionaries
Elleman, Barbara, 69
Energy center, programming, 35-36
Evaluation, of youth services, 1, 147-51,
161-62; fund-raising, 67
Faklis, Ruth, 2, 75
Ferber, Even, 46
Field trips, 5-6
First Amendment: professional library
practice, 60, 63; intellectual freedom,
Ford, Henry, 162
Format, information retrieval, 33
Friends of the Library, 19
Funding, youth services, 18, 65-73;
Corporations, 70; foundations, 71;
Friends of the Library, 69; LSCA,
75-76; patrons, 70; private donors, 71;
Grant Proposal Writing: A Handbook
for School Library Media Specialists,
Grants. See Library Services and Con-
struction Act (LSCA)
Hannigan, Jane Anne, 91, 97, 106
Haycock, Ken, 106, 107
Heim, Kathleen, 90
Heller, Dawn, 2
Helping Teachers Teach, 107
Hippenhammer, Craighton, 2, 79
Hodges, Gerald, 2, 97, 147
Holmes Group, 108, 111
Illinois Library Association, 44
Illinois State Library, 75, 76
Information Age: 157, developing a
youth agenda, 157
Information: communication techno-
Information retrieval, 33, 34; access, 33;
Instructional Role Quotient, 150-52
Intellectual freedom, 62; censorship, 56;
First Amendment, 63
Job satisfaction, 121, 126, 143
Josey, E. J., 18
Journal of Public and International
Kimmel, Margaret Mary, 2, 121
Latchkey children, 7, 38
Learning at Risk: School Library
Media Programs in an Information
Legislation, 159; legislation for youth,
Libraries and the Learning Society, 106
Library Bill of Rights, 56
Library Friends. See Friends of the Li-
Library programs, for parents, 37
Library Services and Construction Act
(LSCA), 75; grant application cri-
teria, 77; refund of allocated funds by
Illinois State Library, 76. See also
Title I; Title II; Title III
Licensing. See Youth librarians
Liesner, James, 105, 106, 107, 142, 144
Literacy, 34; literacy programs, 159
LSCA. See Library Services and Con-
Management: youth services, 1,17, 22,
32, 158-60, see also Youth services
Marketing, of youth services, 66, 68,
79-88; data collection, 82; defined, 80;
promotion, 83-84; trends, 81
Massachusetts Library Association, 95
McDonald, Frances, 2, 55
Measurement: youth services, 147-51,
162; library services, 153; effectiveness
of collection, 153-54; mapping, 154;
lag time, 154
Media specialist. See School library
Miller, Marilyn L., 5
Minudri, Regina, 2, 17
Minorities, 7, 37
Moore, Anne Carroll, 11, 43
Multitype library systems, 76
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: prefer-
ence measurement, 47-48
Nation at Risk, 84
Nebraska Library Commission, 44
New York Library Association, 44
New York Public Library: school-
public library cooperation, 43; mate-
rials budget, 69
Nickelsberg, Marilyn, 98
Ohio Library Association, 44, 79
Performance evaluation. See Youth li-
Perritt, Patsy, 90
Planning Process for Public Libraries
(ALA), 104, 149
Policies: collection development, 13
Pretlow, Delores Zachary, 2, 141
Professional ethics, 63; censorship,
Promotion. See Youth librarians
Public Libraries: youth services, 5;
USSR, 12; collection development,
Public relations, youth services, 31, 66,
Qualifications. See Youth librarians
Rating: library related meetings, 157
Reading Guidance Quotient (RGQ),
Recruitment. See Youth librarians
Resource sharing, 5-6, 12
Rhode Island State Library, 95
Roos, Jean, 43
Rosenzweig, Susan, 2, 65
Rural Library Service Newsletter, 98
School librarians. See Youth librarians
and School library media specialists
School libraries. See School library
School library media centers, 1 1; collec-
tion development, 12-13; curriculum
development, 9; needs, 141-46; stan-
dards, 90-91, 105
School Library Media Employment
School library media specialists, 141-45;
qualifications, 90-91; training, 14.
See also Youth librarians
Selection policies: examination of, 13;
censorship, 5; intellectual freedom,
Seuss, Dr., Once Upon a Time, 35
Shortage. See Youth librarians
Simmons College, 94, 95
Single parent homes, 6
Snoke, Helen Lloyd, 2, 129
Southern Connecticut University, 94
Standards. See Youth librarians
Standards for children's services, 43
Standards for Youth Services in Public
Libraries of New York State, 92, 107,
State Library of Iowa, 98
Surveys: A Creative Survey of Research
Concerning Role Expectations of
Library Media Specialists, 143; Edu-
cational Programs for Librarians
Who Work With Youth, 129; School
Library Media Employment Ques-
tionnaire, 133. See also Youth ser-
Technologies: literacy, 34; trends in
youth service, 10, 81
Title I funds (LSCA): services to disad-
vantaged, 77-78; use limitations,
Title II funds (LSCA), 75
Title III funds (LSCA), 77
Tomorrow's Teachers. See Holmes
Training: library workers, 159
Turner, Philip, 107
Tyson, Christy, 2, 41
Unassailable Truth? A Look at the
Concept of School Library Media
Specialists as Teachers, 142
University of Rhode Island, 94
U.S. Department of Education, 75
USSR, libraries for children, 12
Varlejs, Jana, 2, 115
Vermont Department of Libraries, 44
Women, careers, 122-23
Young adult librarians. See Youth li-
Young Adult Services Division (YASD),
5, 62, 96
Young Adult Services in the Public Li-
Young adults, 5, 17-18; handicapped, 7;
illegitimate, 7, 37; latchkey, 7, 38
Youth librarians: certification, 93,
103-12, 117; coalition-building, 158;
continuing education, 98, 115-19,
168 Managers and Missionaries
125, 133-34; education, 90-101,
103-12, 125, 129-35; Illinois, 93;
image, 32, 86-87, 139, 141, 143; licens-
ing, 103-12; Massachusetts, 95;
Michigan, 93; New England, 94; pro-
fessional relationships, 158; perfor-
mance evaluation, 148; promotion,
24; qualifications, 90-101, 103-12,
137-39; recruitment, 1,90-101, 103-12,
124, 160-61; shortage, 79, 94, 97, 99,
121, 125; standards, 92, 104-05
Youth services: credibility, 85-86; con-
sultants, 161; design, 29-39; image,
161; librarians, 154; library manage-
ment, 159-60; library staff, 158; man-
agement, 1,17, 22, 29-39; public rela-
tions, 68; resource sharing, 5-6, 12;
survey, 50-51; standards, 161; trends,
85-87. See also Marketing of youth
Youth services management: 158-60;
recruitment, 158; legislation, 159; lit-
eracy, 159; demographics, 159; pro-
fessional and paraprofessionaK 158;
library management, 159-60